example, the number of amenities a park has could underlie decisions to create an advisory board. Similarly, a parks’ marketing strategy may attract food vendors to parks for business, and at the same time, selling food in the park may be an opportunistic response to more people in the park. We also
Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen
Reebok officially entered the bike business after 15 years of deliberation and strategic re-tooling. This case presents a situation that considers how the process of internationalization may be impacted by various factors both internal and external to the firm. The analysis examines multiple marketing elements, including brand position, product development, distribution channel, pricing, promotion, and operating model. The focus of decision making in the case centers on the use of licensing and determining possible alliance partner structures as possible solutions to enable Reebok to enter the global bike business successfully. Specific internationalization elements explored include mode of entry, foreign market selection, cultural influences, supply chain, operating model, and licensing strategic alliance partner strategy. This case provides an ideal opportunity to explore and analyze why and how a sport enterprise might want to internationalize its business and the potential role sport licensing might play in the process.
Jose Lam and Jacqueline Walsh
This case illustrates the challenges entrepreneurs experience as they try to guide a new venture to the commercialization stage in the entrepreneurial process. Steve Wheeler, Mike Maddock, and Marcel Savidon are three young entrepreneurs and friends who founded Magine Snowboards, a company focused on the manufacturing of snowboards. This case is set in January of 2012 as Steve Wheeler debates the next strategic step for the company. Magine has developed an innovative product—a snowboard that uses environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. The entrepreneurs have been able to start the business through bootstrapping. However, they now need to develop a strategy that can guide the company forward.
Joe Cobbs, B. David Tyler, Jonathan A. Jensen and Kwong Chan
Accessing and exploiting organizational resources are essential capabilities for competitive sport organizations, particularly those engaged in motorsports, where teams lacking resources frequently dissolve. Corporate sponsorship represents a common method for resource acquisition, yet not all sponsorships equally benefit the sponsored organization. Sponsorship utility can be dependent on institutional dynamics such as league governance that produces competitive disparities. Through this study we extend the resource-based view to assert that sponsorships vary in their propensity to contribute to team survival, warranting prioritization in sponsorship strategy based on access to different sponsor resources. To empirically investigate the influence of a variety of sponsorships, survival analysis modeling was used to examine 40 years of corporate sponsorship of Formula One racing teams. One finding from the longitudinal analysis was that sponsorships offering financial or performance-based resources enhance team survival to a greater degree than operational sponsorships. However, such prioritization is subject to team experience, changes in institutional monetary allocation, and diminishing returns.
Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods
strategies? (c) how do PETE coordinators view barriers to engagement in program recruitment? and (d) how frequently do PETE coordinators employ certain marketing strategies to advance recruitment efforts? Methods Data for this study were drawn from the survey described in Chapter 4 ( Richards, Killian
joined the Board of the Jaycees as a Director. The previous Board decided to not renew their contract with KHA Marketing for 2019. The new President, Joseph, has asked you to analyze the historical data regarding the RDMR and provide a recommendation to the Board about the 2019 prices, marketing strategy
Brandi Watkins and Regina Lewis
In this case study, the authors take a first look at how professional sports teams are using mobile apps as part of their branding and marketing strategies, as well as to enhance fan experience. Through the use of quantitative content-analysis methodology, professional sports teams’ mobile apps (N = 72) are analyzed to assess branding and marketing strategies and opportunities for fan engagement. The branding strategies most prevalent on the mobile apps include information about the teams and their performance. In terms of marketing strategies, 32 of the mobile apps provide an opportunity for fans to purchase team merchandise, and 75% provide an opportunity for fans to purchase tickets. Fan-engagement features that were most prevalent in mobile apps include check-in features (40%) and fantasy-league information (33%). Nearly 90% of mobile apps in the sample integrated Twitter, while 65% provided fans with access to Facebook.
Elisabeth Wolfsteiner, Reinhard Grohs and Udo Wagner
This article investigates the effectiveness of ambush marketing in terms of ambush marketer misidentification in the context of sports events. Grounded in associative network models and memory reconstruction heuristics, an empirical study examines how different ambush marketing strategies as well as event, ambush marketer, official sponsor, and individual consumer characteristics can result in ambush marketer misidentification. A descriptive survey collects data on consumers’ knowledge and perceived misleading potential of four ambush marketing strategies. Finally, three experiments aim to determine the effectiveness of these strategies and the aforementioned drivers in terms of actual ambush marketer misidentification. The results from the experiments are contrasted with the findings from the survey study. Findings are discussed with emphasis on implications for researchers, ambush marketers, official sponsors, and event organizers.
Andre M. Andrijiw and Craig G. Hyatt
In an attempt to understand the lived experiences of those individuals who grew up within the fan region of one professional hockey team yet chose instead to identify with a nonlocal alternative, the authors interviewed 20 Ontario (Canada) based fans of distant National Hockey League teams. Utilizing Brewer’s (1991, 2003) theory of optimal distinctiveness to examine the stories of participants, it was found that these fans maintained their team allegiances over time because doing so allowed them to achieve feelings of both uniqueness and belongingness. Sport managers can help facilitate feelings of belongingness by utilizing various communication and marketing strategies to better recognize and include their distant fans. Such strategies should ultimately result in the strengthening of the fan-team bond.
Understanding how spectators make decisions among the multiplicity of sport alternatives is important to the development of marketing strategies. In this study, a hierarchical choice framework was adopted to help illuminate the process in which individuals deal with sport substitution decisions within one university setting. In a forced-choice experiment, 419 college students were presented with existing sport offerings and asked, under constraint-free conditions, to make attendance choices with and without the most preferred alternative available. By observing students’ choices, the choice process was inferred based on the degree of switching that occurred between the two scenarios and tested whether it followed a hierarchical scheme. Results supported a “tree” structure for attendance choices, in which students consider the specific sport before considering the alternatives within the sport. Thus, under the conditions tested substitution was more likely to occur between alternatives of the same sport than either between different sports with the same sex of participants or proportionally across all alternatives.