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Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg, and Paul Turner

increase the effectiveness of RQ and their impact on intentions and behaviors. IMC: Evolution, Opportunities, and a Framework for Delivery and Outcomes Integrated marketing communications is described as public relations and communications strategies that influence the public by informing, persuading, and

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Elsa Kristiansen and Antonio S. Williams

This article explored how a renowned LPGA golfer, Suzann Pettersen, has built and leveraged her personal brand. Using the athlete brand-equity model as the theoretical framework, a qualitative case study was built by means of interviews and document analyses. Specifically, this case detailed how Pettersen and her management team endeavored to build and manage her personal brand equity through organization-produced and -controlled brand-communications strategies. The findings of this case shed light on the challenges and opportunities that athletes and their constituents face when managing human brands. Moreover, the findings of this case support the use of previously proposed sport-branding conceptualizations in a real-world setting.

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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

their team to win the game is exorbitant. However, if their favorite team loses, sponsors have already spent copious amounts of fees for rights to use the team within the various marketing communications mix. The sport consumer behavior literature points to different coping strategies (e.g., cutting off

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Mark F. Stewart, Constantino Stavros, Pamm Phillips, Heather Mitchell, and Adrian J. Barake

In 1949 the Australian Football League (AFL) introduced a distinctive father–son rule, which allows its member teams to prioritize the recruitment of the sons of former players who had played in a minimum number of games with that team. This paper reveals that some teams have been able to access a statistically significant advantage via this rule, confirming and quantifying that this unique exception compromised the AFL’s reverseorder player draft. In more recent times, through complex reforms, this advantage has been significantly dissipated. Discussion presents this rule as a conundrum for managers as despite potentially compromising the draft, it provides opportunities for off-field marketing communications strategies.

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Thilo Kunkel, Jason P. Doyle, Daniel C. Funk, James Du, and Heath McDonald

The importance of team brand associations in sport management research is well documented, but the formation and stability of these associations has not been investigated. The current research tested the development, change, and predictive ability of brand associations over time. Longitudinal quantitative data were collected from consumers of a new Australian Football League (AFL) team (N = 169) at 3 points in time. One-sample t-tests revealed that brand associations had developed through marketing communications and the launch of the team before the team had played its first AFL game. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and latent growth modeling showed that brand associations changed over time, reflecting consumers’ experiences with the team. A cross-lagged panel model highlighted that brand associations influenced consumer loyalty in the future. Consequently, sport managers are provided with insights on the development of and change in brand associations that new consumers link with sport teams.

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Matthew J. Robinson and Galen T. Trail

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, type of sport, motives, and points of attachment to a team for spectators of selected intercollegiate sports. The significant MANOVA results indicated that gender explained 2% of the variance in motives and 3% of the variance in points of attachment; type of sport explained 4% and 7% of the variance in motives and points of attachment, respectively. A canonical correlation analysis suggested three significant and meaningful variates, which together showed a shared variance between motives and points of attachment in excess of 70%. This suggests that collegiate marketers and managers might want to design their marketing communications to emphasize the relationships among motives and points of attachment rather than trying to segment their fan and spectator base by gender or by type of sport.

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Brett A. Boyle and Peter Magnusson

The authors empirically tested Underwood, Bond, and Baer’s (2001) social identity–brand equity (SIBE) model in the context of fans of a university men’s basketball team. Their model proposes that service marketplace characteristics (venue, team history, rituals, and social groups) enhance one’s social identity to a team. This heightened social identity, in turn, is seen to build brand equity of the team brand. Using the SIBE model as a conceptual framework, a comparative study was conducted across 3 distinct fan groups of the team: current students, alumni, and the general public. Results provide strong support for the effect of social identity on brand equity; regardless of the type of fan, a heightened social identity to the team enhanced the perceived equity of the athletic program (i.e., brand) overall. How social identity was formed, however, differed by fan group. For example, team history showed a significant relationship to social identity for alumni and the general public. Students were most influenced by their sense of the basketball program being part of the local community as a whole. These finding are valuable in knowing how to craft marketing communications for various fan constituencies, as well as understanding how identification to 1 team might be leveraged across all sports in a collegiate athletic program.

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, available at www.nata.org/sites/default/files/natm-targeted-packages.pdf , to assist ATs with promoting the profession and connecting with external stakeholders during National Athletic Training Month. Each package will focus on a specific target audience including the marketing, communications, or PR

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integrated marketing communications (IMC). The Asian Cup brings together 16 nations from the Asian region, with a wide range of different cultures. This diversity creates many challenges to the organizers of the event, particularly in terms of communication. Ambassadors can play a role in this, as they are

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Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel, and Adam Karg

positive brand association benefit, as a result of marketing communications ( Kunkel et al., 2016 ). While organizational marketing communications can help build customer-based brand image through product-based attributes, it appears that the generation of product-based benefits for newly formed sport