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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

general population across the various ways in which this concept has been defined to date. Masters athletes systematically train for, and compete in, organized forms of team and individual sport specifically designed for older adults ( Reaburn & Dascombe, 2008 ). Evidence shows that endurance

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Daniel Leightley, Moi Hoon Yap, Jessica Coulson, Mathew Piasecki, James Cameron, Yoann Barnouin, Jon Tobias and Jamie S. McPhee

a few weeks and including different components of resistance or endurance activities can improve muscle function, mobility, and balance ( McPhee et al., 2016 ; Sherrington, Tiedemann, Fairhall, Close, & Lord, 2011 ). It may therefore be expected that very athletic older people (masters athletes

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Scott Trappe

Over the past 3 decades, there has been a continued increase in the number of “older” participants in sporting events such as running, swimming, cycling, rowing, and weightlifting. Some master athletes come from a background with years of training and competition experience, while others have only begun to compete as they approach middle-aged and older. The majority of what we currently know about master athletes and aging has been gained from both cross-sectional and longitudinal testing and re-testing master athletes and recreational athletes. The focus of this paper is on the physiological profile of athletes and individuals performing regular exercise training. Physiological data from elite and non-elite, recreational, sedentary, and senior athletes clearly indicate that human skeletal muscle has a high degree of plasticity that is maintained late into life. Muscle fiber protein expression and single muscle fiber contractile properties are greatly influenced by exercise training. It appears that skeletal muscle can quickly adapt to accommodate a wide range of functionality to meet the demands (or lack of demands) placed upon it.

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy and Ross Anderson

athletes, both men and women, displayed greater pace control, and they hypothesized that this was attributable to training, expertise, and pacing strategy. In addition to the limited research on nonelite athletes, the number of masters athletes running marathons has increased. 20 , 21 Lepers and Cattagni

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

is fundamental to ongoing participation in track-and-field events. Responsibility for the provision of appropriate nutrition care to young, female, and/or masters athletes is shared among the sport’s leaders, coaches, parents, teachers, and the athletes themselves. This review incorporates aspects of

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams

to identify Masters athletes who are relatively younger and relatively older. The first study on the relative age disparities among a population of Masters athletes was conducted by Medic et al. ( 2007 ). They examined a population of athletes from U.S. Masters track and field and swimming. It was

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Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte

more prone to injuries due to their age-related functional changes. However, this active lifestyle is dominant in the lives of masters athletes, who are actively competing in sport. Baker, Horton, and Weir ( 2010 ) explain that “masters athletes are those who continue to train and compete, typically at

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Rodney C. Wilson, Philip J. Sullivan, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz

This study examined sources of sport confidence and their relationship to trait sport confidence with master athletes. The study employed 216 athletes from 50 to 96 years of age in track and field, tennis, and swimming, using the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire (SSCQ; Vealey, Hayashi, Garner-Holman, & Giacobbi, 1998). Confirmatory factor analysis failed to replicate the proposed 9-factor structure of the SSCQ. Exploratory factor analyses revealed an 8-factor structure with similar factors to the SSCQ, but with fewer items and the elimination of the situational favorableness factor. Physical/mental preparation and mastery were the highest ranked sources among the athletes. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis indicated that physical/mental preparation and demonstration of ability were significant predictors of trait sport confidence for master athletes. Our findings suggest that the SSCQ needs more psychometric work if it is to be used with this type of population.

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Fabien Deruelle, Cédric Nourry, Patrick Mucci, Frédéric Bart, Jean-Marie Grosbois, Ghislaine Lensel and Claudine Fabre

This study aimed to analyze the impact of step-duration protocols, 1-min vs. 3-min, on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise, whatever the aerobic-fitness level of sedentary (65.5 ± 2.3 years, n = 8) or highly fit (63.1 ± 3.2 years, n = 19) participants. Heart rate and VO2 at the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) and maximal exercise were not significantly different between the two protocols. In master athletes, the 3-min protocol elicited significantly lower ventilation at VT2 and maximal exercise (p < .01). In the latter, breathlessness was also lower at maximal exercise (p < .05) than in sedentary participants. In trained or sedentary older adults, VT1, VT2, and VO2max were not influenced by stage duration. According to the lower breathlessness and ventilation, however, the 3-min step protocol could be more appropriate in master athletes. In untrained participants, because the cardiorespiratory responses were similar with the two incremental exercise tests, either of them could be used.

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Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary and Peter C. Niedre

In the new frontier of Masters-level sport, coaching approaches with adult athletes may prove to be quite different than with younger cohorts, and therefore demanding of novel and innovative considerations. This paper draws from emerging perspectives in research on Masters athletes (MAs) and interpretations of broader psycho-social and -pedagogical literature to advance an early roadmap guiding practical strategies for coaches and sport programmers to consider when working with MAs. We explore four content areas that may be particularly relevant for coaches working with adult sportspersons, and for future researchers seeking to confirm where coaching practices with MAs may be highly nuanced. They include: (a) tailoring the sport environment to fulfill adults’ involvement opportunities and heighten athlete commitment; (b) helping adult athletes maximize their limited time for doing sport; (c) guiding athletes to use strategies for negotiating age-related decline; and (d) fostering self-determined and engaged learners in the Masters sport context.