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Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman

Masters sport participation is continually increasing, and although much research has uncovered masters participation motives, it has been noted that an understanding of community among masters athletes was also necessary. Online communities of sport participants have been examined only minimally, with research uncovering correlations between new-media use and sport-participation frequency. Using uses and gratifications theory, this study sought to examine masters gymnastics participants to develop a better understanding of athletes’ use of online communities in relation to their sport participation and examine differences in online community use based on demographics. Online survey results from 164 international participants revealed they used new media primarily for fanship, information, and technical knowledge, and online masters gymnastics communities were most often extensions of in-person training groups and communities. These findings and their implications are discussed in the article.

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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

according to our proposed definition. Of note, however, is that for some individuals such as those prone to overtraining ( Piacentini & Meeusen, 2015 ), and under some circumstances such as exercise addiction ( Landolfi, 2013 ), engagement in masters sport may not promote successful aging. For example

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Bettina Callary, Scott Rathwell and Bradley W. Young

found that course-based coach education specific for working with MAs and research-based recommendations on appropriate coaching approaches for adult athletes were scant. Specific websites dedicated to Masters Sport mostly included information on events, news, and often included information on age

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Maureen M. Smith

As women age, society assigns stereotypes that suggest that older women are no longer capable of being competent athletes. In considering the experiences of older women in sport from a sociological perspective, this article provides a short summary of works examining older women in masters sport settings, as well as three brief case studies of older women engaged in sport and movement. As American women age, more of them will have experienced organized high school sport (after the passage of Title IX), suggesting that the experiences of older women in sport will take on new dimensions and meanings worthy of exploration.

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Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary and Peter C. Niedre

In the new frontier of Masters-level sport, coaching approaches with adult athletes may prove to be quite different than with younger cohorts, and therefore demanding of novel and innovative considerations. This paper draws from emerging perspectives in research on Masters athletes (MAs) and interpretations of broader psycho-social and -pedagogical literature to advance an early roadmap guiding practical strategies for coaches and sport programmers to consider when working with MAs. We explore four content areas that may be particularly relevant for coaches working with adult sportspersons, and for future researchers seeking to confirm where coaching practices with MAs may be highly nuanced. They include: (a) tailoring the sport environment to fulfill adults’ involvement opportunities and heighten athlete commitment; (b) helping adult athletes maximize their limited time for doing sport; (c) guiding athletes to use strategies for negotiating age-related decline; and (d) fostering self-determined and engaged learners in the Masters sport context.

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Susan A. Jackson, Stephen K. Ford, Jay C. Kimiecik and Herbert W. Marsh

The purpose of this study was to examine possible psychological correlates of flow in a sample of older athletes. Both state and trait, or dispositional flow states, were examined. Masters athletes completed questionnaire assessments on two occasions while competing at an international masters sport competition. The participants (398) completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, goal orientation, trait anxiety, perceived ability, and typical flow experiences (trait) when participating in sport. Of these participants, 213 completed a questionnaire after and in relation to one event they competed in at the Games. This second questionnaire assessed state flow, as well as perceptions of success, skills, and challenges in a selected sport event. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine psychological correlates of state and trait flow. Patterns of relationships were found between flow and perceived ability, anxiety, and an intrinsic motivation variable. Understanding flow and its relationship with other psychological variables are discussed.

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Nattai Borges, Peter Reaburn, Matthew Driller and Christos Argus

Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams

they were in the first and second year of an age group. Wattie, Cobley, and Baker ( 2008 ) recommended that relative age disparities in Masters sport be referred to as the “constituent year effect” so that it can be distinguished from the relative age processes among youth. Medic, Young, Starkes, Weir

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Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte

participants in relation to these six questions. The questions were as follows: (1) What one sentence describes your experience as a masters athlete? (2) Tell me about your involvement in masters sport? (3) How did you first get involved in sport? (4) How well do you know your body? (5) As an athlete, you are

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn and Rylee A. Dionigi

older masters athletes. These findings are, however, in line with the successful aging perceptions of non-athletic older adults ( Romo et al., 2013 ; Strawbridge et al., 2002 ) and the evidence from systematic reviews of masters sport-related psychosocial outcomes ( Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity