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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar, and Rylee A. Dionigi

general population across the various ways in which this concept has been defined to date. Masters athletes systematically train for, and compete in, organized forms of team and individual sport specifically designed for older adults ( Reaburn & Dascombe, 2008 ). Evidence shows that endurance

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Daniel Leightley, Moi Hoon Yap, Jessica Coulson, Mathew Piasecki, James Cameron, Yoann Barnouin, Jon Tobias, and Jamie S. McPhee

a few weeks and including different components of resistance or endurance activities can improve muscle function, mobility, and balance ( McPhee et al., 2016 ; Sherrington, Tiedemann, Fairhall, Close, & Lord, 2011 ). It may therefore be expected that very athletic older people (masters athletes

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Catalina Belalcazar and Bettina Callary

In general, Masters athletes (MAs) are 35 years old and older, actively involved in sport, registered in formalized leagues and events, and train for competition, often with a coach ( Young & Callary, 2017 ). Research conducted in English-speaking (e.g., Canada, United States, Australia, United

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Scott Trappe

Over the past 3 decades, there has been a continued increase in the number of “older” participants in sporting events such as running, swimming, cycling, rowing, and weightlifting. Some master athletes come from a background with years of training and competition experience, while others have only begun to compete as they approach middle-aged and older. The majority of what we currently know about master athletes and aging has been gained from both cross-sectional and longitudinal testing and re-testing master athletes and recreational athletes. The focus of this paper is on the physiological profile of athletes and individuals performing regular exercise training. Physiological data from elite and non-elite, recreational, sedentary, and senior athletes clearly indicate that human skeletal muscle has a high degree of plasticity that is maintained late into life. Muscle fiber protein expression and single muscle fiber contractile properties are greatly influenced by exercise training. It appears that skeletal muscle can quickly adapt to accommodate a wide range of functionality to meet the demands (or lack of demands) placed upon it.

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, and Ross Anderson

athletes, both men and women, displayed greater pace control, and they hypothesized that this was attributable to training, expertise, and pacing strategy. In addition to the limited research on nonelite athletes, the number of masters athletes running marathons has increased. 20 , 21 Lepers and Cattagni

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy, and Thierry Bernard

master athletes, consider aging differently. Based on a recent review, master athletes (aged ≥40 years) can be defined as healthy subjects who train regularly during their entire life and strive to maintain their performance level as long as they can ( Lepers & Stapley, 2016 ). In the last decade, master

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore, and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

is fundamental to ongoing participation in track-and-field events. Responsibility for the provision of appropriate nutrition care to young, female, and/or masters athletes is shared among the sport’s leaders, coaches, parents, teachers, and the athletes themselves. This review incorporates aspects of

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes, and Andrew M. Williams

to identify Masters athletes who are relatively younger and relatively older. The first study on the relative age disparities among a population of Masters athletes was conducted by Medic et al. ( 2007 ). They examined a population of athletes from U.S. Masters track and field and swimming. It was

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Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald, and Volker Nolte

more prone to injuries due to their age-related functional changes. However, this active lifestyle is dominant in the lives of masters athletes, who are actively competing in sport. Baker, Horton, and Weir ( 2010 ) explain that “masters athletes are those who continue to train and compete, typically at

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Tyler Makepeace, Bradley W. Young, and Scott Rathwell

As Westernized countries have aged, Masters sport has become increasingly popular among middle-aged and older adults ( Weir et al., 2010 ). Masters sport participation is associated with health and well-being, and Masters athletes (MAs) have been considered exemplars of successful aging ( Geard et