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Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, and Sean P. Cumming

The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes’ cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.

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Stewart A. Vella and Dana J. Perlman

The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise resource for coaches, coach educators, and coaching scientists by reviewing three common approaches to coaching: the mastery approach to coaching; autonomy-supportive coaching; and the transformational leadership approach to coaching. The theoretical foundations, purpose, evidence base, specifed behaviours, and translation into coaching and coach education of each approach are reviewed. Despite diverse theoretical foundations and variations in purpose, there is some overlap in the coaching behaviours prescribed by each approach. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support the use of the three approaches in coach education and this is detrimental to effective and evidence-based coach education. Efforts to integrate theoretical foundations are promising, and a comprehensive prescription of coaching behaviours based on an integration of the three approaches is possible. This approach can potentially lead to cumulative effects on positive athlete outcomes. Future research should elucidate the common and unique contributions of these approaches to athletes’ outcomes, and whether they differ by age, sex, type of sport, or competition level.

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin, and Jean Côté

that was not specifically designed to teach TFL behaviors (i.e., the Mastery Approach to Coaching program; Smith, Smoll & Cumming, 2007 ). Similarly, the intervention was not explicitly informed by behavior-change techniques and thus did not identify the conditions that specify why, when, and how

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Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell, and Evelyne Felber Charbonneau

.g., interview guide) materials were developed in English and French. There is evidence that short-duration coach training programs can lead to favorable learning outcomes, as shown through the Coach Effectiveness Training (CET; 2.5 hours) program and the Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC; 75 minutes) program ( Smith

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

often associated with un-sportsperson-like behaviors, lower effort, and less intent to continue ( Biddle, Wang, Kavussanu, & Spray, 2003 ). To help coaches create a task-oriented climate, Smith, Smoll, and Cummings ( 2007 ) proposed the Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC) program, which teaches coaches

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Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman, and Kevin Kurtz

seminal study on coaching training in the United States, Smith, Smoll, and Curtis ( 1979 ) assigned Little League Baseball coaches to a 2-hr Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC) training program during preseason and interviewed the coaches’ athletes at the end of the season. The MAC program consisted of