The intent of this study was to examine how students (ages 5.9 to 10.9 years) with and without disabilities benefit from an inclusive mastery climate intervention. Participants were randomly distributed into intervention (19 participants with disabilities and 31 participants without disabilities) and comparison (17 participants with disabilities and 37 without disabilities) groups. Participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development before and after the intervention. The analyses revealed that children with and without disabilities who received the 12-week intervention demonstrated significant improvement in motor skill performance from pre- to post- intervention while the comparison group did not. These findings suggest that the mastery climate intervention provided similar learning opportunities for students with and without disabilities.
Nadia C. Valentini and Mary E. Rudisill
Nadia C. Valentini and Mary E. Rudisill
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of motivational climate on motor-skill development and perceived physical competence in kindergarten children with developmental delays. In Experiment 1, two intervention groups were exposed to environments with either high (mastery climate) or low autonomy for 12 weeks. Results showed that the mastery-climate group demonstrated significantly better locomotor performance and higher perceived physical competence postintervention than did the low-autonomy group, although both groups improved in locomotor and object-control skill performance. The second investigation extended the findings of the first by determining that the intervention effects were present 6 months later. In summary, the mastery-climate group showed positive changes in skill development and perceived physical competence, and this positive pattern of change was maintained over time.
Ken Hodge, Graham Henry and Wayne Smith
This case study focused on the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team during the period from 2004 to 2011, when Graham Henry (head coach) and Wayne Smith (assistant coach) coached and managed the team. More specifically, this case study examined the motivational climate created by this coaching group that culminated in winning the Rugby World Cup in 2011. In-depth interviews were completed with Henry and Smith in March 2012. A collaborative thematic content analysis revealed eight themes, regarding motivational issues and the motivational climate for the 2004–2011 All Blacks team: (i) critical turning point, (ii) flexible and evolving, (iii) dual-management model, (iv) “Better People Make Better All Blacks,” (v) responsibility, (vi) leadership, (vii) expectation of excellence, and (viii) team cohesion. These findings are discussed in light of autonomy-supportive coaching, emotionally intelligent coaching, and transformational leadership. Finally, practical recommendations are offered for coaches of elite sports teams.
Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss
, athletes will perceive the motivational climate of the rehabilitation setting as more of a mastery climate or more of a performance climate . For this study, a mastery motivational climate was defined as a rehabilitation setting in which athletes perceive an emphasis placed on individual learning
Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall and Gareth E. Jowett
Youth sport is a source of well-being for adolescents, yet experiences vary and attrition can be high. We sought to better understand the coach behaviors that foster positive experiences in youth sport by examining relationships between the motivational climate and athlete engagement (viz., confidence, dedication, enthusiasm, and vigor). We reasoned that a mastery climate (emphasis on effort and learning) would correspond with higher engagement, whereas a performance climate (emphasis on ability and outcome) was expected to correspond with lower engagement. Two-hundred sixty adolescent soccer players completed measures of engagement and perceived coach motivational climate. All dimensions of engagement were positively predicted by a mastery climate. Furthermore, cognitive aspects of engagement were positively predicted by a performance climate. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that a composite of engagement was positively associated with a mastery climate. Results suggest that a mastery climate offers a means of promoting higher levels of overall engagement.
Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi
education teacher, they have extensive experience teaching in mastery climates and has conducted numerous studies investigating mastery motivational climates with children aged 2 to 8 over the past 20 years. While the teachers from each classroom were on the playground during the motor skills program, they
Anne Cox and Lavon Williams
Research illustrates the positive roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and mastery climate and the negative role of performance climate in student motivation in physical education. Less research has examined perceptions of relationships within this setting (i.e., perceived teacher support and relatedness) and their role in student motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the mediating roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the relationship between social contextual factors and motivation in physical education students (N = 508). Results from structural equation modeling showed that perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness partially mediated the relationship between perceived teacher support and self-determined motivation and that mastery climate related directly to self-determined motivation. The results highlight the importance of perceived teacher support, mastery climate, and relatedness to motivation in physical education.
George B. Cunningham and Ping Xiang
Guided by achievement goal theory, the current study examined whether perceived motivational climate mediated the relationship between achievement goals and satisfaction with physical activity among college students, as well as whether this mediation differed by sex. Participants (N = 304) completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and satisfaction with physical activity. Perceptions of a mastery-focused climate were found to be a mediator of the relationship between mastery goals and satisfaction. The mediating role of perceived motivational climate did not differ based on the sex of the student. Collectively, results of this study support the view that mastery goals and perceived mastery climate are motivationally beneficial to students in the physical activity domain.
Frank L. Smoll, Ronald E. Smith and Sean P. Cumming
Mastery-oriented motivational climates and achievement goal orientations have been associated with a range of salutary and clinically relevant outcomes in both educational and sport research. In view of this, an intervention was developed for youth sport coaches designed to promote a mastery motivational climate, and a field experiment was conducted to assess its effects on changes in athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of a sport season. The experimental group was comprised of 155 boys and girls, who played for 20 basketball coaches; 70 youngsters played for 17 control group coaches. The coach intervention resulted in higher Mastery-climate scores and lower Ego-climate scores compared with the control condition, and athletes who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in Mastery goal orientation scores and significant decreases in Ego-orientation scores across the season, whereas control group participants did not. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
T. Michelle Magyar, Deborah L. Feltz and Ian P. Simpson
The purpose of this study was to examine individual (i.e., task self-efficacy, rowing experience, and goal orientations) and group/boat level (perceptions of motivational climate and boat size) determinants of collective efficacy in the sport of rowing. Participants were 154 male and female rowers ages 13 to 18 years (M = 16.19, SD = 1.29). Approximately 24 hours prior to the regional championship regatta, participants completed a demographic measure, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, and sport-specific individual and collective efficacy measures developed for the current study. Multilevel modeling revealed that task self-efficacy significantly predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy, while perceptions of a mastery climate significantly predicted average collective efficacy scores at the group level.