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Michael J.A. Speranza, Tim J. Gabbett, David A. Greene, Rich D. Johnston, and Andrew D. Townshend

Australian National Rugby League competition concluded that the majority of tackles were performed at the mid torso of the ballcarrier. 7 However, a 2015 study investigating tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league match play found that approximately 70% of tackles were executed around the

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Ryland Morgans, Rocco Di Michele, and Barry Drust

being associated with the highest physical load (in terms of both volume and intensity). 2 Longitudinal studies carried out on professional teams suggest that longer individual match playing time completed across the season favors the improvement and/or maintenance of physical capacities relevant to

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Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, and Brian Dawson

intermittent-running ability and both high-speed and total distances covered during elite AF match play. 9 , 10 Although these studies provide some insight into the influence of different physical qualities on physical match performance, they have largely involved elite and subelite playing groups. Given

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Angelo Sabag, Ric Lovell, Neil P. Walsh, Nick Grantham, Mathieu Lacome, and Martin Buchheit

auxiliary training practices, such as resistance training (RT), during heavily congested schedules in order to focus on recovery. 8 Practitioners tend to implement various recovery strategies in the 24 hours following match play, with the most popular being nutrition, hydrotherapy, massage, foam rolling

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Dale B. Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic J. Phibbs, Josh D. Darrall-Jones, Greg A.B. Roe, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Andrew Rock, and Kevin Till

The physical characteristics of match play (ie, running and collisions) in age-grade (eg, U18 [under-18]) rugby union players is a growing area of research. 1 – 3 Studies using global positioning systems (GPS) have published data from county representative, 4 school, 5 academy, 2 and

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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans, and Clare L. Minahan

be determined whether team-sport athletes similarly regulate their running and movement intensity during match play as they do in training in response to changes in subjective wellness. Only one previous study 13 has examined the associations between the changes in prematch wellness and changes in

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston, and David G. Jenkins

specifically for rugby league, which can be used to quantify collision counts. 4 This algorithm is sensitive to detect 97.6% of collision events during professional rugby league match-play, and the typical error associated with measuring these events is 7.8%. 4 Accurately quantifying collision workloads is

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Stuart R. Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt, and Roger Eston

Australian Football League (AFL) premiership season. Studies in professional soccer 11 – 13 and more recently in professional AF, 14 have demonstrated association between aerobic capacity, assessed via a Yo-Yo IR2 and match-play exercise intensity (MEI sim/min). 14 Specifically, in professional AF, a high

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Tom Kempton, Anita Claire Sirotic, Ermanno Rampinini, and Aaron James Coutts

Purpose:

To describe the metabolic demands of rugby league match play for positional groups and compare match distances obtained from high-speed-running classifications with those derived from high metabolic power.

Methods:

Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 25 players from a team competing in the National Rugby League competition over 39 matches. Players were classified into positional groups (adjustables, outside backs, hit-up forwards, and wide-running forwards). The GPS devices provided instantaneous raw velocity data at 5 Hz, which were exported to a customized spreadsheet. The spreadsheet provided calculations for speed-based distances (eg, total distance; high-speed running, >14.4 km/h; and very-highspeed running, >18.1 km/h) and metabolic-power variables (eg, energy expenditure; average metabolic power; and high-power distance, >20 W/kg).

Results:

The data show that speed-based distances and metabolic power varied between positional groups, although this was largely related to differences in time spent on field. The distance covered at high running speed was lower than that obtained from high-power thresholds for all positional groups; however, the difference between the 2 methods was greatest for hit-up forwards and adjustables.

Conclusions:

Positional differences existed for all metabolic parameters, although these are at least partially related to time spent on the field. Higher-speed running may underestimate the demands of match play when compared with high-power distance—although the degree of difference between the measures varied by position. The analysis of metabolic power may complement traditional speed-based classifications and improve our understanding of the demands of rugby league match play.

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Matthew J.E. Lott and Stuart D.R. Galloway

This study assessed fluid balance, sodium losses, and effort intensity during indoor tennis match play (17 ± 2 °C, 42% ± 9% relative humidity) over a mean match duration of 68.1 ± 12.8 min in 16 male tennis players. Ad libitum fluid intake was recorded throughout the match. Sweat loss from change in nude body mass; sweat electrolyte content from patches applied to the forearm, calf, and thigh, and back of each player; and electrolyte balance derived from sweat, urine, and daily food-intake analysis were measured. Effort intensity was assessed from on-court heart rate compared with data obtained during a maximal treadmill test. Sweat rate (M ± SD) was 1.1 ± 0.4 L/hr, and fluid-ingestion rate was 1.0 ± 0.6 L/hr (replacing 93% ± 47% of fluid lost), resulting in only a small mean loss in body mass of 0.15% ± 0.74%. Large interindividual variabilities in sweat rate (range 0.3–2.0 L/hr) and fluid intake (range 0.31–2.52 L/hr) were noted. Whole-body sweat sodium concentration was 38 ± 12 mmol/L, and total sodium losses during match play were 1.1 ± 0.4 g (range 0.5–1.8 g). Daily sodium intake was 2.8 ± 1.1 g. Indoor match play largely consisted of low-intensity exercise below ventilatory threshold (mean match heart rate was 138 ± 24 beats/min). This study shows that in moderate indoor temperature conditions players ingest sufficient fluid to replace sweat losses. However, the wide range in data obtained highlights the need for individualized fluid-replacement guidance.