that these sex differences may not exist before puberty and appear to develop as a result of maturation. 22 , 25 However, to date, there are still few studies that explain that the rapid musculoskeletal changes experienced by females throughout the adolescent growth spurt are associated with
Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Ariadna Benet, Sergi Mirada, Alicia M. Montalvo and Gregory D. Myer
Mark De Ste Croix, Abigail Priestley, Rhodri Lloyd and Jon Oliver
found in the current study might be attributed to a protective effect that is developed through maturation-related changes and/or soccer training. This enhanced muscular control in the older girls may indicate that they have become quadriceps dominant, and thus, quadriceps torque decreased more with
Jason Moran, Gavin R.H. Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oliver Todd, Jay Collison and Dave A. Parry
The purpose of this intervention study was to investigate if a low-dose of plyometric training (PT) could improve sprint and jump performance in groups of different maturity status.
Male youth field hockey players were divided into Pre-PHV (from -1 to -1.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 9; Control = 12) and Mid-PHV (0 to +0.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 8; Control = 9) groups. Participants in the experimental groups completed 60 foot contacts, twice-weekly for 6 weeks.
PT exerted a positive effect (effect size: 0.4 [-0.4–1.2]) on 10 m sprint time in the experimental Mid-PHV group but this was less pronounced in the Pre-PHV group (0.1 [-0.6–0.9]). Sprint time over 30 m (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.1 [-0.7–0.9]) and CMJ (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.0 [-0.7–0.8]) was maintained across both experimental groups. Conversely, the control groups showed decreased performance in most tests at follow up. Between-group analysis showed positive effect sizes across all performance tests in the Mid-PHV group, contrasting with all negative effect sizes in the Pre-PHV group.
These results indicate that more mature hockey players may benefit to a greater extent than less mature hockey players from a low-dose PT stimulus. Sixty foot contacts, twice per week, seems effective in improving short sprint performance in Mid-PHV hockey players.
Citation 1 Towlson C, Cobley S, Midgley AW, Garrett A, Parkin G, Lovell R. Relative age, maturation and physical biases on position allocation in elite-youth soccer. Int J Sports Med . 2017;38:201–9. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-119029 This study assessed the contribution of relative age, anthropometry
Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Joey C. Eisenmann and Lauren B. Sherar
The process of maturation is continuous throughout childhood and adolescence. In a biological context, the effects of a child’s maturation might mask or be greater than the effects associated with exposure to exercise. Pediatric exercise scientists must therefore include an assessment of biological age in study designs so that the confounding effects of maturation can be controlled for. In order to understand how maturation can be assessed, it is important to appreciate that 1 year of chronological time is not equivalent to 1 year of biological time. Sex- and age-associated variations in the timing and tempo of biological maturation have long been recognized. This paper reviews some of the possible biological maturity indicators that the pediatric exercise scientist can use. As a result, we recommend that any of the methods discussed could be used for gender-specific comparisons. Gender-comparison studies should either use skeletal age or some form of somatic index.
Anthony Birat, David Sebillaud, Pierre Bourdier, Eric Doré, Pascale Duché, Anthony J. Blazevich, Dimitrios Patikas and Sébastien Ratel
- and post-pubertal recreationally active boys and girls. Yet, maturation could strongly influence the interaction between drop height and jumping performance, as there is a gradual enhancement in the rapid force producing potential and utilization of the underpinning mechanisms of the SSC over this
Paul J. Read, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B.A. De Ste Croix and Rhodri S. Lloyd
identify normative values for asymmetry across different tasks for players at different stages of growth and maturation as these may be linked to increased injury risk ( 1 ). Asymmetry during jumping and landing tasks places additional stress on the soft tissue structures of the nondominant leg, which may
For The Year that Was—2016, I have selected three papers in the area of growth, maturation, and exercise during youth. The year of 2016 was a successful year and it was not an easy task to highlight the most significant publications in this specific area of pediatric exercise science. The first paper has been chosen because it provides, for the first time, the growth and maturational status of elite junior tennis players belonging to the top eight players in the National rankings in various ages and compares against population norms. It appeared that individual differences in growth and maturation contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players in both sexes, with a bias towards these athletes who are comparatively tall and heavy for their age already in younger ages. The second paper is a methodological paper and was selected because it provides a unique perspective on the use of different tracking coefficients to investigate short-term tracking of cardiorespiratory and performance-related physical fitness among adolescents during growth and maturation. Specifically, three distinct statistical approaches were applied in this paper: auto-correlations, mulitilevel modeling corrected tracking values for time-varying covariates and Cohen`s Kappa in order to identify group and individual tracking as well as individuals whose trajectories are unstable across time. This methodological paper demonstrated the importance of the selection of the statistical approach to monitor and describe short-term tracking of cardiorespiratory and performance-related physical fitness variables in adolescents during growth and maturation. The third selected paper provided some evidence that the consequence of physical activity during childhood can be far reaching as physical activity might not only promote health benefits but also have positive effects on adulthood earnings.
Sharon Ann Plowman
This paper describes the effects of exercise training on the somatic, skeletal, and sexual maturation of children. Young athletes of both sexes grow at the same rate and to the same extent as young nonathletes. However, there is evidence that the pubertal development of young female athletes may be delayed. Menarche is more consistently late than either thelarche or pubarche. Genetic and environmental factors are explored in an attempt to determine causative mechanisms. Longitudinal training data are needed for both boys and girls on a variety of physical and hormonal variables. Until such data are available, it is recommended that all children engage in regular physical activity but that maturational progress be monitored in those involved in strenuous competitive training.
Jorge Arede, António Paulo Ferreira, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Nuno Leite
other parameters of assessments or variables that usually are not sufficiently valued, such as biological maturation. The maturation is characterized by structural and functional changes in the body 12 and recognized as one of the best predictors of game performance 5 and a discriminant factor 2 in