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Mark De Ste Croix, Abigail Priestley, Rhodri Lloyd, and Jon Oliver

found in the current study might be attributed to a protective effect that is developed through maturation-related changes and/or soccer training. This enhanced muscular control in the older girls may indicate that they have become quadriceps dominant, and thus, quadriceps torque decreased more with

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Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Ariadna Benet, Sergi Mirada, Alicia M. Montalvo, and Gregory D. Myer

that these sex differences may not exist before puberty and appear to develop as a result of maturation. 22 , 25 However, to date, there are still few studies that explain that the rapid musculoskeletal changes experienced by females throughout the adolescent growth spurt are associated with

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Jason Moran, Gavin R.H. Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oliver Todd, Jay Collison, and Dave A. Parry


The purpose of this intervention study was to investigate if a low-dose of plyometric training (PT) could improve sprint and jump performance in groups of different maturity status.


Male youth field hockey players were divided into Pre-PHV (from -1 to -1.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 9; Control = 12) and Mid-PHV (0 to +0.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 8; Control = 9) groups. Participants in the experimental groups completed 60 foot contacts, twice-weekly for 6 weeks.


PT exerted a positive effect (effect size: 0.4 [-0.4–1.2]) on 10 m sprint time in the experimental Mid-PHV group but this was less pronounced in the Pre-PHV group (0.1 [-0.6–0.9]). Sprint time over 30 m (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.1 [-0.7–0.9]) and CMJ (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.0 [-0.7–0.8]) was maintained across both experimental groups. Conversely, the control groups showed decreased performance in most tests at follow up. Between-group analysis showed positive effect sizes across all performance tests in the Mid-PHV group, contrasting with all negative effect sizes in the Pre-PHV group.


These results indicate that more mature hockey players may benefit to a greater extent than less mature hockey players from a low-dose PT stimulus. Sixty foot contacts, twice per week, seems effective in improving short sprint performance in Mid-PHV hockey players.

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Anthony Birat, David Sebillaud, Pierre Bourdier, Eric Doré, Pascale Duché, Anthony J. Blazevich, Dimitrios Patikas, and Sébastien Ratel

- and post-pubertal recreationally active boys and girls. Yet, maturation could strongly influence the interaction between drop height and jumping performance, as there is a gradual enhancement in the rapid force producing potential and utilization of the underpinning mechanisms of the SSC over this

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Jaak Jürimäe

Citation 1 Towlson C, Cobley S, Midgley AW, Garrett A, Parkin G, Lovell R. Relative age, maturation and physical biases on position allocation in elite-youth soccer. Int J Sports Med . 2017;38:201–9. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-119029 This study assessed the contribution of relative age, anthropometry

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Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

development, then from a research and/or practitioner perspective, a genuine need exists for these to be addressed. Growth and maturation reflects one interindividual developmental factor that confounds the ability to identify genuinely skilled (or advanced) performers from their developmentally similar peers

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John M. Radnor, Jon L. Oliver, Charlotte M. Waugh, Gregory D. Myer, and Rhodri S. Lloyd

Notable disparities in anatomy and physiology exist between children and adults, and there are also clear differentiations between children and adolescents, mediated by growth and maturation ( 24 , 36 ). Force-producing capacities are lower in children when compared with adolescents or adults

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Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Francisco Ayala, and Rudolf Psotta

tests using a spring-mass model approach, which have been shown to be reliable measures of SSC capability in youth populations ( 4 , 17 ). Understanding changes in stiffness during growth and maturation are essential in helping to develop appropriate performance enhancing and injury management

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Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Joey C. Eisenmann, and Lauren B. Sherar

The process of maturation is continuous throughout childhood and adolescence. In a biological context, the effects of a child’s maturation might mask or be greater than the effects associated with exposure to exercise. Pediatric exercise scientists must therefore include an assessment of biological age in study designs so that the confounding effects of maturation can be controlled for. In order to understand how maturation can be assessed, it is important to appreciate that 1 year of chronological time is not equivalent to 1 year of biological time. Sex- and age-associated variations in the timing and tempo of biological maturation have long been recognized. This paper reviews some of the possible biological maturity indicators that the pediatric exercise scientist can use. As a result, we recommend that any of the methods discussed could be used for gender-specific comparisons. Gender-comparison studies should either use skeletal age or some form of somatic index.

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Daniel K. Rogers, Ian McKeown, Gaynor Parfitt, Darren Burgess, and Roger G. Eston

this physical quality develops is impeded by a lack of research with younger age groups. In addition, the current body of research on AMC in youth ARF players has yet to consider the effect of biological maturation—a process occurring during adolescence and defined as the progression toward a mature