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Job Fransen, Stephen Bush, Stephen Woodcock, Andrew Novak, Dieter Deprez, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, Roel Vaeyens and Matthieu Lenoir

). When assessing skeletal age using X-ray techniques, an X-ray image from the left wrist is used to compare an individual’s bone and grades of skeletal maturity indicators are combined to estimate skeletal age that are then compared with reference data ( 4 , 10 , 30 ). The assessment of sexual maturation

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Kyle S. Beyer, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd, Kayla M. Baker, Haley C. Bergstrom, Jay R. Hoffman and David H. Fukuda

Presently, youth exercise prescription and sports stratification are based on chronological age; however, there may be marked differences in the biological maturity of youth athletes of the same chronological age ( 5 , 22 , 26 , 35 ). The disparity between chronological and biological age may

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P. Chelladurai and A.V. Carron

The purpose of the study was to determine if preferences of athletes for training and instruction (task-oriented) behavior and social support (relationship-oriented) behavior would vary with athletic maturity (operationalized in terms of level of competition). Basketball players from high school midget (n = 67), junior (n = 63), and senior (n = 63) divisions and university (n = 69) completed the “preferred leader behavior” version of the Leadership Scale for Sports. Trend analyses revealed the presence of a quadratic trend in preference for training and instruction which progressively decreased from high school midget, through junior to senior levels and increased at the university level; however, the direction of this trend was opposite to that predicted. A linear trend was obtained for social support which progressively increased from the high school midget level to the university level but, again, it was in a direction opposite than that predicted. It was noted that future research should incorporate both a wide range of competition levels and groups with markedly different levels of success in order to determine the interrelationship between leadership preference and athletic maturity. It was also noted, however, that sport as a social system may not afford athletes an opportunity to achieve athletic maturity.

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

affect the level of competition ( Lidor et al., 2014 ) and, hence, the magnitude of RAE. Maturity status is included in Hancock and colleagues’ ( 2013 ) theoretical model and Wattie, Schorer, and Baker’s ( 2015 ) developmental systems model of RAEs in sport under the heading of athletes ( Hancock et

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Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan

(speed, acceleration, jump power, etc) ( 12 , 17 ), highlighting the physical dominance of players who are at an advanced stage of maturity ( 12 , 26 ). Although youth soccer players will compete within their respective age groups (same chronological age), the impact of growth and maturation can result

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Alan Nevill and Richard F. Burton

We applaud the attempt of Fransen et al ( 4 ) to improve on the original maturity-offset article of Mirwald et al ( 5 ). Both articles derive equations for predicting age at peak height velocity (APHV), but both are at best misleading and at worst fundamentally flawed. As their response variables

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Lauren B. Sherar, Sean P. Cumming, Joey C. Eisenmann, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones and Robert M. Malina

The decline in physical activity (PA) across adolescence is well established but influence of biological maturity on the process has been largely overlooked. This paper reviews the limited number of studies which examine the relationship between timing of biological maturity and PA. Results are generally inconsistent among studies. Other health-related behaviors are also considered in an effort to highlight the complexity of relationships between biological maturation and behavior and to provide future research directions.

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Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana

skinfolds >35 mm was calculated as follows: for boys, %BF =0.783 (sum of 2 skinfolds) − 1.7; for girls, %BF = 0.546 (sum of 2 skinfolds) + 9.7. Fat mass was calculated as follows: fat mass = (body mass × %BF)/100; fat-free mass (kg) = body mass − fat mass. In addition, maturity offset was assessed by

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Robert M. Malina, Audrey C. Choh, Stefan A. Czerwinski and Wm. Cameron Chumlea

Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs.

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Geraldine M. Murphy, Albert J. Petitpas and Britton W. Brewer

A study was conducted with 124 intercollegiate student-athletes at an NCAA Division I institution to examine the relationship between self-identity variables (i.e., identity foreclosure and athletic identity) and career maturity. Results indicated that both identity foreclosure and athletic identity were inversely related to career maturity. Significant effects of gender, playing status (varsity vs. nonvarsity), and sport (revenue producing vs. nonrevenue producing) on career maturity were observed. The findings suggest that failure to explore alternative roles and identifying strongly and exclusively with the athlete role are associated with delayed career development in intercollegiate student athletes, and that male varsity student-athletes in revenue-producing sports may be especially at risk for impaired acquisition of career decision-making skills. The results underscore the importance of understanding athletic identity issues and exercising caution in challenging sport-related occupational aspirations in presenting career development interventions to student-athletes.