(Micro Medical, Gillingham, Kent, United Kingdom) as explained in detail earlier ( 49 , 50 ). Another research physician confirmed and recorded correct digital volume pulse contours using the manufacturer’s guide. SI and RI were assessed in a supine position before and after a maximal exercise test in an
Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka
Kayla J. Nuss, Joseph L. Sanford, Lucas J. Archambault, Ethan J. Schlemer, Sophie Blake, Jimikaye Beck Courtney, Nicholas A. Hulett and Kaigang Li
eat a small snack approximately one hour prior to the test as they would be performing a maximal exercise test. On the test day, the participant provided informed consent. Researchers measured height and weight and BMI was calculated (defined as the body mass in kilograms [kg] divided by height in
Kate E. Sheppard and Gaynor Parfitt
This study examined the patterning of acute affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise intensities in a young adolescent population. Twenty-two young adolescents (13.3 ± .33 years) completed a maximal exercise test to identify ventilatory threshold (VT). Participants then completed two prescribed intensities (one set above and one below the VT) and a self-selected intensity. Pre-, during, and postexercise affective valence was measured. Results revealed that during exercise, affective valence assessed by the Feeling Scale (FS) remained positive in the self-selected and low-intensity conditions but declined in the high-intensity condition. Postexercise FS responses rebounded to preexercise levels, eradicating divergent trends that occurred during exercise.
Gi Broman, Miguel Quintana, Margareta Engardt, Lennart Gullstrand, Eva Jansson and Lennart Kaijser
The aim of the study was to examine submaximal and maximal physiological responses and perceived exertion during deep-water running with a vest compared with the responses during treadmill running in healthy elderly women. Eleven healthy women 70 ± 2 years old participated. On two different occasions they performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill on land and a graded maximal exercise test in water wearing a vest. At maximal work the oxygen uptake was 29% lower (p < .05), the heart rate was 8% lower (p < .05), and the ventilation was 16% lower (p < .05) during deep-water running than during treadmill running. During submaximal absolute work the heart rate was higher during deep-water running than during treadmill running for the elderly women. The participants had lower maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, and rate of perceived exertion during maximal deep-water running with a vest than during maximal treadmill running. These responses were, however, higher during submaximal deep-water running than during treadmill running.
Eric D. Vidoni, Anna Mattlage, Jonathan Mahnken, Jeffrey M. Burns, Joe McDonough and Sandra A. Billinger
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of a submaximal exercise test, the Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP), in a broad age range and in individuals in the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals (n = 102) underwent treadmill-based maximal exercise testing and a STEP. The STEP failed to predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and was a biased estimate of VO2peak (p < .0001). Only 43% of subjects’ STEP results were within 3.5 ml · kg–1 · min–1 of VO2peak. When categorized into fitness levels these 2 measures demonstrated moderate agreement (kappa = .59). The validity of the STEP was not supported in our participants, including those with AD. The STEP may not be appropriate in the clinic as a basis for exercise recommendations in these groups, although it may continue to have utility in classifying fitness in research or community health screenings.
David Markland, Mark Emberton and Rachel Tallon
The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.
J. Timothy Bricker, Arthur Garson Jr., Stephen M. Paridon and Thomas A. Vargo
This study evaluated prospective exercise correlates of sinus node function in young individuals. Subjects for this study were 25 children and young adults who required cardiac catheterization for a symptomatic arrhythmia. Measurements of sinus node function at elechophysiological catheterization were the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) and sinoatrial conduction time (SACT). Maximal exercise testing was performed using a Bruce treadmill protocol the day prior to cardiac catheterization. Exercise measurements included resting heart rate, peak heart rate, cardiac acceleration from rest to 3 minutes, from rest to 6 minutes, from rest to peak, and from 3 to 6 minutes, cardiac deceleration from peak to 1 minute postexercise, deceleration for each minute of recovery, recovery heart rates for each of 5 minutes postexercise, heart rate at which respiratory exchange ratio >1.0 and slope of the heart rate – VO2 curve. Exercise testing did not predict intracardiac measures of sinus node function either as a group (“normal” vs. “abnormal” groups) or individually.
Vassilis Tsiaras, Andreas Zafeiridis, Konstantina Dipla, Kostas Patras, Anastasios Georgoulis and Spiros Kellis
The aims were to develop and validate a VO2peak prediction equation from a treadmill running test in active male adolescents. Eighty-eight athletes (12–18 yrs.) performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill to assess the actual VO2peak and a 20m Shuttle-Run-Test (20mST). A step-wise linear regression analysis was used and the following equation for estimation of VO2peak (mL·kg−1·min−1) = 35.477 + 1.832 × duration in min - 0.010 × duration × body mass in kg was developed. The cross-validation statistics were: R = .54, CE = 0.1 mL·kg−1·min−1, SEE = 2.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 (4.6%), and TE = 2.6 mL·kg−1·min−1 (4.9%). The cross-validation values (CE, SEE, and TE) were lower compared with those of previously published equations in adolescents that estimated VO2peak using anthropometric data, performance in 20mST, and energy cost at submaximal speeds.
Richard B. Kreider, Gary W. Miller, Deborah Schenck, Charles W. Cortes, Victor Miriel, C. Thomas Somma, Pam Rowland, Caroll Turner and Dawn Hill
Six trained male cyclists and triathletes participated in a double blind study to determine the effects of phosphate loading on maximal and endurance exercise performance. Subjects ingested either 1 gm of tribasic sodium phosphate or a glucose placebo four times daily for 3 days prior to performing either an incremental maximal cycling test or a simulated 40-km time trial on a computerized race simulator. They continued the supplementation protocol for an additional day and then performed the remaining maximal or performance exercise test. Subjects observed a 17-day washout period between testing sessions and repeated the experiment with the alternate supplement regimen in identical fashion. Metabolic data were collected at 15-sec intervals while venous blood samples and 2D-echocardiographic data were collected during each stage of exercise during the maximal exercise test and at 8-km intervals during the 404cm time trial. Results indicate that phosphate loading attenuated anaerobic threshold, increased myocardial ejection fraction and fractional shortening, increased maximal oxidative capacity, and enhanced endurance performance in competitive cyclists and triathletes.
Rose M. Giordano, John W. Newman, Theresa L. Pedersen, Marisa I. Ramos and Charles L. Stebbins
Metabolites of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway may contribute to vasodilation of the vasculature. However, it is not known whether exercise affects their circulating concentrations. The authors determined effects of exercise intensity and duration on plasma concentrations of epoxy and dihydroxy metabolites of arachidonic acid. Their goal was to delineate the threshold workload, optimal workload, and duration required to produce increases in plasma concentrations of these vasoactive substances. Healthy volunteers (N = 14) performed maximal exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer during Visit 1. On separate days, subjects cycled for 20 min at 30%, 60%, and 80% of their maximal exercise intensity. The last day consisted of 40 min of exercise at 60% of maximal exercise intensity. Venous blood was obtained before, during, and after exercise for analysis. Compared with rest, increases were observed during the 80% workload at 20 min postexercise —14,15-DHET (0.77 ± 0.21 vs. 0.93 ± 0.27 nM)—and at 2 min postexercise: 11,12-DHET (0.64 ± 0.22 vs. 0.71 ± 0.24 nM; p < .05). Also compared with rest, 40-min values during the 60% workload were 14,15-DHET 0.79 ± 0.22 vs. 0.91 ± 0.31 nM and at 2 min post 14,15 EET 0.12 ± 0.06 vs. 0.21 ± 0.16 nM (p < .05). Results suggest the CYP metabolites (i.e., DHETs) are released during short-term high-intensity and long-term moderateintensity exercise.