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Zackary S. Cicone, Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Michael R. Esco

Maximal heart rate (MHR) is defined as the highest heart rate a person can attain during a graded exercise test (GXT) and is a noninvasive yet robust physiological indicator used within a variety of situations. As heart rate typically increases proportionally with exercise intensity ( 12 ), this

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James Balmer, Christopher R. Potter, Steve R. Bird and R.C. Richard Davison

This study assessed age-related changes in power and heart rate in 114 competitive male cyclists age 15–73 years. Participants completed a maximal Kingcycle™ ergometer test with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest average power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats/min) as the highest value during the test. From age 15 to 29 (n = 38) RMPmax increased by 7.2 W/year (r = .53, SE 49 W, p < .05). From age 30 to 73 (n = 78) RMPmax declined by 2.4 W/year (r = –.49, SE 49 W, p < .05). Heart rate decreased across the full age range by 0.66 beats · min–1 · year–1 (r = –.75, SE 9 beats/min, p < .05). Age accounted for only 25% of the variance in RMPmax but 56% in HRmax. RMPmax was shown to peak at age 30, then decline with age, whereas HRmax declined across the full age range.

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Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini

.99–48.59)* 46.04 (5.34) (42.65–49.43)* Maximal heart rate, beats·min –1 178 (5) (175–181) 180 (8) (175–185) 183 (5) (180–186) Peak blood lactate, mmol·L −1 9.93 (2.15) (8.57–11.30) 10.29 (2.23) (8.87–11.70) 7.10 (1.76) (5.98–8.21)*# Rating of perceived exertion, a.u. 20 (1) (19–20) 19 (1) (18–20) 19 (1) (18

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Lars Donath, Lukas Zahner, Mareike Cordes, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss and Oliver Faude

The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, ηp = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3–5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

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Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen

baseline after the preplanned recovery days. Overreaching is characterized by decreased performance and psychological perturbations. Moreover, maximal heart rate is decreased, and, at a given intensity (PO), heart rate is decreased, which might reveal a down-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. 17

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Adelle Gadowski, Alice J. Owen, Andrea Curtis, Natalie Nanayakkara, Stephane Heritier, Marie Misso and Sophia Zoungas

% improvement with placebo ( p  = .025). Table 2 Meta-Analysis Results Heterogeneity Outcome Number of studies Mean difference between groups [95% confidence interval] p value χ 2 p value I 2 Maximum exercise time, s 4 82.75 [−31.87, 197.36] .16 <.0001 89% Maximal heart rate, bpm 3 2.81 [−7.41, 13.03] .59

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

concentration and improved 1-mile race performance compared with DEC and PLA. In addition, blood glucose and lactate concentration and maximal heart rate were unaffected by the ingestion of COF or DEC. Following the ingestion of caffeinated coffee, race performance was improved by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with

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Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock

This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.

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Magnus Dencker, Bianca Hermansen, Anna Bugge, Karsten Froberg and Lars B. Andersen

This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 ± 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 4–7%. Further analyses showed the main contributing factors for absolute values of VO2PEAK were fat free mass, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 3–6%.

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Bo Fernhall, Ken Pitetti, Nancy Stubbs and Louis Stadler Jr.

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between VO2max and the 1/2-mile run-walk and the reliability of each in children with mental retardation (MR). Twenty-three children (13 boys, 10 girls) with mild or moderate MR participated in the study. Two maximal treadmill protocols with metabolic measurements and two 1/2-mile run-walk trials were randomly conducted on separate days. There was no difference between Trial 1 and Trial 2 for VO2max (28.2 vs. 29.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1), maximal heart rate (175 vs. 177 bpm), or run-walk time (7.2 vs. 7.1 min). The test-retest correlations were r = .90 for VO2max, r = .81 for maximal heart rate, and r = .96 for the 1/2-mile run-walk (p < .05). The correlation between VO2max and the 1/2-mile run-walk was r = −.60 (p < .05). Adding body mass index to the model improved R to .67 (SEE = 7.3). The 1/2-mile run-walk was a reliable test, but had questionable validity as an indicator of aerobic capacity in children with mild and moderate MR.