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Michail Lubomirov Michailov, Audry Morrison, Mano Mitkov Ketenliev and Boyanka Petkova Pentcheva

Traditional treadmill or bicycle ergometry neglects the upper-body musculature that predominantly limits or terminates rock-climbing performance (ie, the inability to continually pull up one’s body mass or “hang on”).

Purpose:

To develop an incremental maximal upper-body ergometer test (UBT) to evaluate climbers’ aerobic fitness and sport-specific work capacity and to compare these results with a traditional treadmill protocol.

Methods:

Eleven elite sport climbers (best redpoint grade Fr.8b) performed a UBT on a vertically mounted rowing ergometer and, on a separate occasion, performed a maximal incremental treadmill test (TMT). Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured continuously. Lactate (La) samples were collected.

Results:

Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and heart rate in UBT and TMT were 34.1 ± 4.1 vs 58.3 ± 2.6 mL · min−1 · kg−1 and 185 ± 8 vs 197 ± 8 beats/min, respectively, and both variables were of significantly lower magnitude during UBT (P < .001). End-of-test La levels for UBT (11.9 ± 1.7 mmol/L) and TMT (12.3 ± 2.5 mmol/L) were similar (P = .554). Treadmill VO2peak was not correlated with either upper-body (UB) VO2peak (P = .854) or redpoint and on-sight climbing grade ability (P > .05). UB VO2peak and peak power output per kg body mass were both strongly correlated (P < .05) with climbing grade ability. The highest correlation coefficient was calculated between current on-sight grade and UB VO2peak (r = .85, P = .001).

Conclusion:

UBT aerobic- and work-capacity results were strongly correlated to climbing-performance variables and reflected sport-specific fatigue, and TMT results were not. UBT is preferred to TMT to test and monitor dedicated and elite rock climbers’ training status.

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Shaun J. McLaren, Michael Graham, Iain R. Spears and Matthew Weston

Purpose:

To investigate the sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) as measures of internal load.

Methods:

Twenty-two male university soccer players performed 2 maximal incremental-exercise protocols (cycle, treadmill) on separate days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration (B[La]peak), and the preprotocol-to-postprotocol change in countermovement-jump height (ΔCMJH) were measured for each protocol. Players provided dRPE (CR100) for breathlessness (RPE-B) and leg-muscle exertion (RPE-L) immediately on exercise termination (RPE-B0, RPE-L0) and 30 min postexercise (RPE-B30, RPE-L30). Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences.

Results:

There were clear between-protocols differences for V̇O2max (cycle 46.5 ± 6.3 vs treadmill 51.0 ± 5.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1, mean difference –9.2%; ±90% confidence limits 3.7%), HRmax (184.7 ± 12.7 vs 196.7 ± 7.8 beats/min, –6.0%; ±1.7%), B[La]peak (9.7 ± 2.1 vs 8.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L, 15%; ±10%), and ΔCMJH (–7.1 ± 4.2 vs 0.6 ± 3.6 cm, –23.2%; ±5.4%). Clear between-protocols differences were recorded for RPE-B0 (78.0 ± 11.7 vs 94.7 ± 9.5 AU, –18.1%; ±4.5%), RPE-L0 (92.6 ± 9.7 vs 81.3 ± 14.1 AU, 15.3%; ±7.6%), RPE-B30 (70 ± 11 vs 82 ± 13 AU, –13.8%; ±7.3%), and RPE-L30 (86 ± 12 vs 65 ± 19 AU, 37%; ±17%). A substantial timing effect was observed for dRPE, with moderate to large reductions in all scores 30 min postexercise compared with scores collected on exercise termination.

Conclusion:

dRPE enhance the precision of internal-load measurement and therefore represent a worthwhile addition to training-load-monitoring procedures.

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels and Jos J. de Koning

performed a maximal incremental exercise test and a 2000-m familiarization time trial with 45 minutes of absolute rest between the 2 tests. The maximal incremental exercise test was used to determine V ˙ O 2 max and PVO 2 max. During the second visit, subjects completed a 20,000-m familiarization time

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Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain

human experimentation. Experimental Design During 2 preliminary visits, participants were thoroughly familiarized with testing procedures. The drop height that produced the greatest power output was determined. Participants also performed a maximal incremental exercise test (9 km·h −1  + 0.5 km·h −1

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof

O 2  = 0.17), and 2500 m (F i O 2  = 0.15). During the first visit, all participants performed a maximal incremental exercise test to determine if inclusion criteria regarding fitness were met. When participants met the inclusion criteria, the GE test (see below) was practiced to diminish the effect

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Anna E. Voskamp, Senna van den Bos, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof

. Experimental Design Subjects visited the laboratory on 4 separate occasions. During the first occasion, subjects completed a maximal incremental exercise test. After at least 24 hours, subjects completed a familiarization trial to become acquainted with the experimental protocol of the GE test and to minimize

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

-state running sessions. Corresponding sRPE values for the BORG-RPE and BORG-CR10 were found to have a very large to almost perfect, nonlinear relationship. When comparing the relationship of sRPE ratings using both the BORG-RPE and BORG-CR10 with the relationship of momentary RPE ratings for maximal incremental

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Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James Hopker

the study. The study was conducted with full University of Kent ethical approval and after obtaining informed written consent from all participants. Experimental Design Participants attended the exercise testing laboratory on 4 separate occasions. Visit 1 consisted of a maximal incremental exercise

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Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Alejandro R. Triviño, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Alejandro De-la-O, Jørn W. Helge and Jonatan R. Ruiz

the maximal walking speed was reached. Subsequently, the treadmill speed was constant, and the gradient was increased by 2% every 3 minutes until the respiratory exchange ratio was ≥1.0. Then, after a 5-minute break, a maximal incremental exercise test, using the modified Balke protocol (3-min walking

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Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M. Murias and Guillaume Y. Millet

A maximal incremental exercise test is a well-established method for determining key parameters of aerobic capacity in humans, such as gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ). Since indices of aerobic capacity such as V ˙ O 2