, and body fat percentage). Secondary DVs included maximal strength (back squat and deadlift) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants Healthy, young, aspiring female physique athletes volunteered to participate in the study. To qualify, all participants were required to have resistance trained
Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Laurin Conlin, Andres Vargas, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Amey Corson, Chris Gai, Shiva Best, Elfego Galvan, and Kaylee Couvillion
Kris Beattie, Brian P. Carson, Mark Lyons, and Ian C. Kenny
Maximum- and reactive-strength qualities both have important roles in athletic movements and sporting performance. Very little research has investigated the relationship between maximum strength and reactive strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum-strength (isometric midthigh-pull peak force [IMTP PF]) and reactive-strength (drop-jump reactive-strength index [DJ-RSI]) variables at 0.3-m, 0.4-m, 0.5-m, and 0.6-m box heights. A secondary aim was to investigate the between- and within-group differences in reactive-strength characteristics between relatively stronger athletes (n = 11) and weaker athletes (n = 11). Forty-five college athletes across various sports were recruited to participate in the study (age, 23.7 ± 4.0 y; mass, 87.5 ± 16.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m). Pearson correlation results showed that there was a moderate association (r = .302–.431) between maximum-strength variables (absolute, relative, and allometric scaled PF) and RSI at 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 m (P ≤ .05). In addition, 2-tailed independent-samples t tests showed that the RSIs for relatively stronger athletes (49.59 ± 2.57 N/kg) were significantly larger than those of weaker athletes (33.06 ± 2.76 N/kg) at 0.4 m (Cohen d = 1.02), 0.5 m (d = 1.21), and 0.6 m (d = 1.39) (P ≤ .05). Weaker athletes also demonstrated significant decrements in RSI as eccentric stretch loads increased at 0.3-m through 0.6-m box heights, whereas stronger athletes were able to maintain their reactive-strength ability. This research highlights that in specific sporting scenarios, when there are high eccentric stretch loads and fast stretch-shortening-cycle demands, athletes’ reactive-strength ability may be dictated by their relative maximal strength, specifically eccentric strength.
Kenny Guex, Chantal Daucourt, and Stéphane Borloz
In the field of sport rehabilitation, an easy, valid, and reliable assessment of maximal strength is crucial for efficient muscle rehabilitation. Classically, it is performed on fitness equipment that is not necessary available in the field. Thera-Band has developed elastic bands with different resistances depending on the color of the band and on the percentage of its stretch. This may allow testing maximal strength.
To determine validity and reliability of maximal-strength assessment of knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands.
Reliability and validity study.
22 healthy participants (31.3 ± 7.0 y, 175.5 ± 8.5 cm, 70.7 ± 12.9 kg).
Participants performed 2 maximal-strength assessments, separated by 7 d, of the knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands. After the 2nd trial, a maximal concentric isokinetic test at 60°/s was performed.
Main Outcome Measures:
Correlations between 1-repetition maximum using elastic bands and peak torque on an isokinetic dynamometer were used to determine the validity of the proposed method, while ICC, CV, and SEM were used to determine reliability between the 1st and 2nd trials.
The validity of the proposed method was found to be very high (r = .93 for both knee flexors and extensors). The relative reliability was found to be very high (ICC = .98 and .99 for knee flexors and extensors, respectively), while absolute reliability was also very satisfying (CV = 3.44% and 2.33%; SEM = 1.70 and 2.16 kg for knee flexors and extensors, respectively).
Thera-Band is a valid and reliable alternative to the use of fitness equipment to test maximal strength of the knee flexors and extensors in healthy subjects. The ease of use, accessibility, and low cost of elastic bands should allow regular assessment during the rehabilitation process.
Kevin M. Carroll, Jake R. Bernards, Caleb D. Bazyler, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato, and Michael H. Stone
Resistance training (RT) has repeatedly shown the capability to enhance physical performance characteristics, such as maximal strength 1 – 4 and rate of force development (RFD). 5 Maximal strength and RFD are critically important for athletes, particularly in strength–power sports. 6 , 7
Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Sam Wu, Ivan Jukic, and Kazunori Nosaka
further enhance maximal strength gains, as participants lifted higher loads compared with the PBT methods. Although RPE-based methods are valid and reliable, they may be problematic since they are subjective and coaches may prefer to utilize more precise objective methods, particularly with well
Jesualdo Cuevas-Aburto, Ivan Jukic, Jorge Miguel González-Hernández, Danica Janicijevic, Paola Barboza-González, Luis Javier Chirosa-Ríos, and Amador García-Ramos
also important to note that muscular strength contributes significantly to the production of muscle power. 2 Consequently, sport professionals are constantly seeking ways to optimize training interventions to improve maximal strength and power generating capacities. Both muscular strength and power
Bettina Karsten, Liesbeth Stevens, Mark Colpus, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, and Fernando Naclerio
To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT).
16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy).
Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-trainingonly group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests.
No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training.
Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.
Marcos A. Soriano, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio Torres-González, Joaquín Castillo-Palencia, Pedro J. Marín, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, and Paul Comfort
and high levels of power. 1 , 2 Furthermore, James et al 3 found that improvements in performance of high-velocity sporting actions are associated with preexisting strength levels. The 1-repetition maximum (1RM) is considered as the gold standard for assessing the maximal strength during dynamic
Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Alan Ruddock, Harry G. Banyard, and Andrew Barnes
affecting the accuracy of prescriptions on a week-to-week basis. Regular 1RM assessments are possible; however, practitioners are faced with time constraints and logistical impracticalities. Such drawbacks have prompted the development of additional aids and approaches to maximal strength testing, such as
Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg, and Kaj S. Emanuel
with any decline in joint functioning. No differences in maximal strength, VA, and fatigability were observed between the groups. The participants were relatively fit due to the inclusion criteria, most specifically the ability to climb stairs, which is illustrated by good outcomes for several tests