In recent years, multiple performance factors have been identified in road cycling. 1 Among the physiological determinants of performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) adjusted to body mass can be highlighted as a key parameter of cardiorespiratory fitness. 2 Normally, gas exchange
Sebastian Sitko, Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Francisco Corbi, and Isaac López-Laval
Kevin E. Miller, Timothy R. Kempf, Brian C. Rider, and Scott A. Conger
Maximal oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 max ) plays an integral role in health and wellness. The assessment of V ˙ O 2 max can be used to prescribe exercise intensity, evaluate the progress of an exercise program, and evaluate endurance performance potential ( American College of Sports Medicine
James R. Mckee, Bradley A. Wall, and Jeremiah J. Peiffer
. However, for aerobic adaptation (ie, increases in cardiac output and maximal oxygen consumption [ V ˙ O 2 max ]), the total time an individual spends at or near their V ˙ O 2 max is an important consideration. 5 , 6 Many studies have examined the influence of interval structure on the time spent at or
Roland van den Tillaar, Erna von Heimburg, and Guro Strøm Solli
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) is defined as the highest rate at which oxygen can be taken up and utilized by the body during intensive exercise. 1 The VO 2 max test is frequently used as a measure of the cardiorespiratory fitness level of an individual or as a physiological marker for
Denis M. Pelletier, Guillaume Lacerte, and Eric D.B. Goulet
Lately, the effect of quercetin supplementation (QS) on endurance performance (EP) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) has been receiving much scientific and media attention. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to determine QS’s ergogenic value on these variables. Studies were located with database searches (PubMed and SPORTDiscus) and cross-referencing. Outcomes represent mean percentage changes in EP (measured via power output) and VO2max between QS and placebo. Random-effects model meta-regression, mixed-effects model analog to the ANOVA, random-effects weighted mean effect summary, and magnitudebased inferences analyses were used to delineate the effects of QS. Seven research articles (representing 288 subjects) were included, producing 4 VO2max and 10 EP effect estimates. Mean QS daily intake and duration were, respectively, 960 ± 127 mg and 26 ± 24 d for the EP outcome and 1,000 ± 0 mg and 8 ± 23 d for the VO2max outcome. EP was assessed during exercise with a mean duration of 79 ± 82 min. Overall, QS improved EP by 0.74% (95% CI: 0.10–1.39, p = .02) compared with placebo. However, only in untrained individuals (0.83% ± 0.78%, p = .02) did QS significantly improve EP (trained individuals: 0.09% ± 2.15%, p = .92). There was no relationship between QS duration and EP (p = .69). Overall, QS increased VO2max by 1.94% (95% CI: 0.30–3.59, p = .02). Magnitude-based inferences suggest that the effect of QS on EP and VO2max is likely to be trivial for both trained and untrained individuals. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that QS is unlikely to prove ergogenic for aerobic-oriented exercises in trained and untrained individuals.
Katrina Taylor, Jeffrey Seegmiller, and Chantal A. Vella
To determine whether a decremental protocol could elicit a higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) than an incremental protocol in trained participants. A secondary aim was to examine whether cardiac-output (Q) and stroke-volume (SV) responses differed between decremental and incremental protocols in this sample.
Nineteen runners/triathletes were randomized to either the decremental or incremental group. All participants completed an initial incremental VO2max test on a treadmill, followed by a verification phase. The incremental group completed 2 further incremental tests. The decremental group completed a second VO2max test using the decremental protocol, based on their verification phase. The decremental group then completed a final incremental test. During each test, VO2, ventilation, and heart rate were measured, and cardiac variables were estimated with thoracic bioimpedance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted with an alpha level set at .05.
There were no significant main effects for group (P = .37) or interaction (P = .10) over time (P = .45). VO2max was similar between the incremental (57.29 ± 8.94 mL · kg–1 · min–1) and decremental (60.82 ± 8.49 mL · kg–1 · min–1) groups over time. Furthermore, Q and SV were similar between the incremental (Q 22.72 ± 5.85 L/min, SV 119.64 ± 33.02 mL/beat) and decremental groups (Q 20.36 ± 4.59 L/min, SV 109.03 ± 24.27 mL/beat) across all 3 trials.
The findings suggest that the decremental protocol does not elicit higher VO2max than an incremental protocol but may be used as an alternative protocol to measure VO2max in runners and triathletes.
Jan Sommer Jeppesen, Jeppe F. Vigh-Larsen, Mikkel S. Oxfeldt, Niklas M. Laustsen, Magni Mohr, Jens Bangsbo, and Morten Hostrup
indicates regular training; SET, speed endurance training; V ˙ O 2 max , maximal oxygen consumption. *Different ( P < .05) from baseline. #SET different ( P < .05) from CON. Figure 4 Correlation between V ˙ O 2 max relative to body weight and Yo-Yo IR1-IH performance at baseline (A) and correlation
Madison C. Chandler, Amanda L. McGowan, Ford Burles, Kyle E. Mathewson, Claire J. Scavuzzo, and Matthew B. Pontifex
as M ± SD . VO 2 max percentile based on normative values for VO 2 max ( Shvartz & Reibold, 1990 ). BMI = body mass index; RPE = rating of perceived exertion; VO 2 max = maximal oxygen consumption. Procedure Using a cross-sectional design, the participants visited the laboratory on a single day
Vinícius F. Milanez, Rafael E. Pedro, Alexandre Moreira, Daniel A. Boullosa, Fuad Salle-Neto, and Fábio Y. Nakamura
The aim of this study was to verify the influence of aerobic fitness (VO2max) on internal training loads, as measured by the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method.
Nine male professional outfeld futsal players were monitored for 4 wk of the in-season period with regards to the weekly accumulated session-RPE, while participating in the same training sessions. Single-session-RPE was obtained from the product of a 10-point RPE scale and the duration of exercise. Maximal oxygen consumption was determined during an incremental treadmill test.
The average training load throughout the 4 wk period varied between 2,876 and 5,035 arbitrary units. Technical-tactical sessions were the predominant source of loading. There was a significant correlation between VO2max (59.6 ± 2.5 mL·kg–1 ·min–1) and overall training load accumulated over the total period (r = –0.75).
The VO2max plays a key role in determining the magnitude of an individual’s perceived exertion during futsal training sessions.
Georges Jabbour, Melanie Henderson, Angelo Tremblay, and Marie Eve Mathieu
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) improves aerobic fitness in children, which is usually assessed by maximal oxygen consumption. However, other indices of aerobic fitness have been understudied.
To compare net oxygen (VO2net), net energy consumption (Enet), net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), and lipid oxidation rate in active and inactive children across body weight statuses.
The sample included normal-weight, overweight, and obese children of whom 44 are active (≥30 min of MVPA/d) and 41 are inactive (<30 min of MVPA/d). VO2net, Enet, MEnet and lipid oxidation rate were determined during an incremental maximal cycling test.
Active obese participants had significantly lower values of VO2net and Enet and higher MEnet than inactive obese participants at all load stages. In addition, active obese participants showed a significantly higher lipid oxidation rate compared with inactive obese and active overweight and normal-weight participants. VO2net, Enet, and MEnet were similar across active children, regardless of body weight status.
Thirty minutes or more of MVPA per day is associated with a potentiation of aerobic fitness indicators in obese prepubertal children. Moreover, the indices of aerobic fitness of inactive obese children are significantly different from those of active obese and nonobese ones.