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A Maximal Rowing Ergometer Protocol to Predict Maximal Oxygen Uptake

Kurt Jensen, Morten Frydkjær, Niels M.B. Jensen, Lucas M. Bannerholt, and Søren Gam

Although many physiological and anthropometric parameters alone or in combination can be used to predict rowing performance in Olympic rowing (2000 m), the most important physiological determinant of rowing performance is maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max , in L·min −1 ). 1 – 6 Regular

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A Maximal Rowing-Ergometer Protocol to Predict Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Female Rowers

Oscar B. Mazza, Søren Gam, Mikkel E.I. Kolind, Christian Kiær, Christina Donstrup, and Kurt Jensen

Although many physiological and anthropometric parameters influence performance in Olympic rowing (2000-m), several studies have pointed toward maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) as being the most important physiological predictor of 2000-m (2-km) rowing performance. 1 – 4 Pripstein et al 5

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Validity of the Supramaximal Test to Verify Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Children and Adolescents

Kate M. Sansum, Max E. Weston, Bert Bond, Emma J. Cockcroft, Amy O’Connor, Owen W. Tomlinson, Craig A. Williams, and Alan R. Barker

Maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), typically expressed in relation to a measure of body size, is the “gold-standard” measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) ( 10 ). A valid measurement of V ˙ O 2 max is important in children and adolescents because a high CRF in youth is associated with a

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No Effect of Calanus Oil on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Study

Lucas Tauschek, Ragnhild E.N. Røsbjørgen, Håvard Dalen, Terje Larsen, and Trine Karlsen

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), a robust measure of human endurance and metabolic capacity, is defined as the highest oxygen uptake utilized during maximal intensity exercise with large muscle mass ( Keren et al., 1980 ). VO 2 max is documented to be the single best predictor of longevity and

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Adding Vibration During Varied-Intensity Work Intervals Increases Time Spent Near Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Well-Trained Cyclists

Sébastien Duc, Tomas Urianstad, and Bent R. Rønnestad

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an intermittent mode of endurance training characterized by short high-intensity work intervals. Its discontinuous nature, by design, allows for the accumulation of a greater amount of time spent near maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) 1 than could be

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Improving Utilization of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Work Economy in Recreational Cross-Country Skiers With High-Intensity Double-Poling Intervals

Jan-Michael Johansen, Sondre Eriksen, Arnstein Sunde, Øystein B. Slettemeås, Jan Helgerud, and Øyvind Støren

longer duration from ∼240 (winner times) to 360 min (random recreational times). This implies 70% to 99% dependency on aerobic metabolism, in which maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), fractional utilization of VO 2 max, and work economy are regarded, across all these disciplines. 2 – 9 Double poling is one

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Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Daily Physical Activity in 7- to 12-Year-Old Boys

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa and Mohammed A. Sulaiman

The present study examined the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and daily physical activity in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys. V̇O2max was assessed through the incremental treadmill test using an open circuit system. Physical activity level was obtained from heart rate telemetry outside of school time for 8 hrs during weekdays and during 40 min of physical education classes. The findings indicated that the absolute value of V̇O2max increased with age, while relative to body weight it remained almost the same across age, with a mean of 48.4 ml · kg−1 · min−1. Moreover, heart rate telemetry showed that the boys spent a limited amount of time on activities that raise the heart rate to a level above 160 bpm (an average of 1.9%). In addition, V̇O2max was found to be significantly related to the percentage of time spent at activity levels at or above a heart rate of 140 bpm, but not with activity levels at or above a heart rate of 160 bpm.

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The Self-Paced VO2max Test to Assess Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Highly Trained Runners

James S. Hogg, James G. Hopker, and Alexis R. Mauger


The novel self-paced maximal-oxygen-uptake (VO2max) test (SPV) may be a more suitable alternative to traditional maximal tests for elite athletes due to the ability to self-regulate pace. This study aimed to examine whether the SPV can be administered on a motorized treadmill.


Fourteen highly trained male distance runners performed a standard graded exercise test (GXT), an incline-based SPV (SPVincline), and a speed-based SPV (SPVspeed). The GXT included a plateau-verification stage. Both SPV protocols included 5 × 2-min stages (and a plateau-verification stage) and allowed for self-pacing based on fixed increments of rating of perceived exertion: 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20. The participants varied their speed and incline on the treadmill by moving between different marked zones in which the tester would then adjust the intensity.


There was no significant difference (P = .319, ES = 0.21) in the VO2max achieved in the SPVspeed (67.6 ± 3.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.6–69.7 mL · kg−1 · min−1) compared with that achieved in the GXT (68.6 ± 6.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.1–72.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Participants achieved a significantly higher VO2max in the SPVincline (70.6 ± 4.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 68.1–73.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than in either the GXT (P = .027, ES = 0.39) or SPVspeed (P = .001, ES = 0.76).


The SPVspeed protocol produces VO2max values similar to those obtained in the GXT and may represent a more appropriate and athlete-friendly test that is more oriented toward the variable speed found in competitive sport.

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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Submaximal Exercise-Based Equations to Predict Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Young People

Katia Ferrar, Harrison Evans, Ashleigh Smith, Gaynor Parfitt, and Roger Eston

Many equations to predict maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) from submaximal exercise tests have been proposed for young people, but the composition and accuracy of these equations vary greatly. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze all submaximal exercise-based equations to predict V̇O2max measured via direct gas analysis for use with young people. Five databases were systematically searched in February 2013. Studies were included if they used a submaximal, exercise-based method to predict V̇O2max; the actual V̇O2max was gas analyzed; participants were younger than 18 years; and equations included at least one submaximal exercise-based variable. A meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were conducted. Sixteen studies were included. The mean equation validity statistic was strong, r = .786 (95% CI 0.747–0.819). Subgroup meta-analysis suggests exercise mode may contribute to the overall model, with running- and walking-based predictive equations reporting the highest mean r values (running r = .880; walking r = .821) and cycling the weakest (r = .743). Selection of the most appropriate equation should be guided by factors such as purpose, logistic limitations, appropriateness of the validation sample, the level of study bias, and the degree of accuracy. Suggestions regarding the most accurate equation for each exercise mode are provided.

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Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake From a 3-Minute Walk Based on Gender, Age, and Body Composition

Zhen-Bo Cao, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Tomoko Aoyama, Mitsuru Higuchi, and Izumi Tabata


The purpose was to develop new maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) prediction models using a perceptually regulated 3-minute walk test.


VO2max was measured with a maximal incremental cycle test in 283 Japanese adults. A 3-minute walk test was conducted at a self-regulated intensity corresponding to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 13.


A 3-minute walk distance (3MWD) was significantly related to VO2max (r = .60, P < .001). Three prediction models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2max using data on gender, age, 3MWD, and either BMI [BMI model, multiple correlation coefficients (R) = .78, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 5.26 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1], waist circumference (WC model, R = .80, SEE = 5.04 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1), or body fat percentage (%Fat model, R = .84, SEE = 4.57 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1), suggesting that the %Fat model is the best model [VO2max = 37.501 + 0.463 × Gender (0 = women, 1 = men) – 0.195 × Age – 0.589 × %Fat + 0.053 × 3MWD]. Cross-validation by using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) procedures demonstrated a high level of cross-validity of all prediction models.


The new VO2max prediction models are reasonably applicable to estimating VO2max in Japanese adults and represent a quick, low-risk, and convenient means for estimating VO2max in the field.