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Trade-Off Between Maximal Power Output and Fatigue Resistance of the Knee Extensors for Older Men

Ryota Akagi, Yuta Nomura, Chiho Kawashima, Mari Ito, Kosuke Oba, Yuma Tsuchiya, Geoffrey A. Power, and Kosuke Hirata

prefatigue maximal power output and neuromuscular fatigue resistance for older adults needs to be investigated under isotonic conditions to optimize training and/or rehabilitation regimens. The current study determined maximal power output and neuromuscular fatigue resistance of the KE under isotonic

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Is the Optimal Load for Maximal Power Output During Hang Power Cleans Submaximal?

Seiichiro Takei, Kuniaki Hirayama, and Junichi Okada

. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the factors determining the optimum load for maximal power output during HPCs in Olympic weight lifters. We tested 2 hypotheses: (1) a decrease in velocity leads to a decrease in power output at loads above the optimal loads reported in previous

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The Effect of Saddle Position on Maximal Power Output and Moment Generating Capacity of Lower Limb Muscles during Isokinetic Cycling

Jeroen Vrints, Erwin Koninckx, Marc Van Leemputte, and Ilse Jonkers

Saddle position affects mechanical variables during submaximal cycling, but little is known about its effect on mechanical performance during maximal cycling. Therefore, this study relates saddle position to experimentally obtained maximal power output and theoretically calculated moment generating capacity of hip, knee and ankle muscles during isokinetic cycling. Ten subjects performed maximal cycling efforts (5 s at 100 rpm) at different saddle positions varying ± 2 cm around the in literature suggested optimal saddle position (109% of inner leg length), during which crank torque and maximal power output were determined. In a subgroup of 5 subjects, lower limb kinematics were additionally recorded during submaximal cycling at the different saddle positions. A decrease in maximal power output was found for lower saddle positions. Recorded changes in knee kinematics resulted in a decrease in moment generating capacity of biceps femoris, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius at the knee. No differences in muscle moment generating capacity were found at hip and ankle. Based on these results we conclude that lower saddle positions are less optimal to generate maximal power output, as it mainly affects knee joint kinematics, compromising mechanical performance of major muscle groups acting at the knee.

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A Comparison of Maximal Power Outputs between Elite Male and Female Weightlifters in Competition

John Garhammer

Films taken at the first Women’s World Weightlifting Championship were analyzed to determine the average power output during the total pulling phase, and the second pull phase, for the heaviest successful snatch and clean lift of gold medalists in each of nine body-weight divisions. Comparisons were made with previously published data on power output by male lifters in World and Olympic competition. Average relative power output values were one and a half to two times greater for both men and women when only the second pull phase of each lift was analyzed. Results show that women can generate higher short-term power outputs than previously documented, but lower than for men in absolute values and relative to body mass. Male/female comparisons in other high power sport events and basic strength measures are discussed. The high power outputs suggest the value of including the types of lifts analyzed in training programs to improve short-term power output.

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Field-Derived Maximal Power Output in Cycling: An Accurate Indicator of Maximal Performance Capacity?

Jesús G. Pallares, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Xabier Muriel, Manuel Mateo-March, David Barranco-Gil, and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose: To determine the validity of field-derived mean maximum power (MMP) values for monitoring maximal cycling endurance performance. Methods: Twenty-seven male professional cyclists performed 3 timed trials (TTs) of 1-, 5-, and 20-minute duration that were used as the gold standard reference. Field-based power output data (3336 files; 124 [25] per cyclist) were registered during the preparatory (60 d pre-TT, including training data only) and specific period of the season (60 d post-TT, including both training and competitions). Comparisons were made between TT performance (mean power output) and MMP values obtained for efforts of the same duration as TT (MMP of 1-, 5-, and 20-min duration). The authors also compared TT- and MMP-derived values of critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity. Results: A large correlation (P < .001, r > .65) was found between MMP and TT performance regardless of the effort duration or season period. However, considerable differences (P < .05, standard error of measurement [SEM]  > 5%) were found between MMP and TT values for all effort durations in the preparatory period, as well as for the derived CP and anaerobic work capacity. Significant differences were also found between MMP and TT of 1 minute in the specific period, as well as for anaerobic work capacity, yet with no differences for MMP of 5- and 20-minute duration or the derived CP (P > .05, SEM < 5%). Conclusion: MMP values (for efforts ≥5 min) and the associated CP obtained from both training sessions and competitions can be considered overall accurate indicators of the cyclist’s maximal capabilities, but specific tests might be necessary for shorter efforts or when considering training sessions only.

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Force–Velocity–Power Profile in High-Elite Boulder, Lead, and Speed Climber Competitors

Guillaume Levernier, Pierre Samozino, and Guillaume Laffaye

describes the changes in external force generation and power output with increasing movement velocity and could be summarized through typical variables, such as the theoretical maximal force at null velocity ( F 0 ), the maximal power output ( P max ), and the theoretical maximal velocity at which the limb

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Both Caffeine and Placebo Improve Vertical Jump Performance Compared With a Nonsupplemented Control Condition

Jozo Grgic, Sandro Venier, and Pavle Mikulic

best jump was used for the analysis. The analyzed outcomes were vertical jump height (in centimeters) calculated from the vertical velocity of the center of mass at take-off data 11 and maximal power output during take-off (in watt per kilogram). Earlier test–retest reliability assessment in our

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Enhancement of Exercise Capacity in the Heat With Repeated Menthol-Spray Application

Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic, and Stuart Goodall

-measures design in which participants completed 3 exercise conditions. The first condition took place in a temperate environment and was to establish their maximal power output ( P Max ) for use during the subsequent 2 conditions that took place in a hot environment. Conditions 2 and 3 were counterbalanced where

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Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Acute Normobaric Hypoxia

Christian Mariacher, Hannes Gatterer, Joachim Greilberger, Radoslav Djukic, Michaela Greilberger, Marc Philippe, and Martin Burtscher


To compare the effects of a 3-week supplementation between two different mixtures of antioxidants and placebo on aerobic exercise performance in acute normobaric hypoxia.


Seventeen subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive a broad-based antioxidants supplement containing beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, d-alpha-tocopherol-succinate, N-acetylcysteine, riboflavin, zinc, and selenium (antioxidant capsule group [AO group]), or a combination of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF; CYL concentrate supplementation group [CS group]), or placebo (PL group). Before and after supplementation, subjects performed two incremental cycle-exercise tests until exhaustion. The first test was conducted under normoxic conditions (LA, FiO2 of 20.9%, ~547 m) and the second after the 3-week supplementation period under normobaric hypoxic conditions (AHA, FiO2 of 12.9%, ~4300m).


In CS peak cycling performance (peak power) declined from LA to AHA 7.3% (90% CI: 2.2–12.4) less compared with PL (p = .04) and 6.7% (90%CI: 3.2–10.2) less compared with AO (p = .03). Better maintenance of aerobic exercise capacity in CS was associated with an attenuated reduction in maximal heart rate in hypoxia.


Aerobic exercise performance was less impaired in acute normobaric hypoxia after 3 weeks with supplementation of α-KG and 5-HMF compared with a broad-based antioxidants supplement or PL.

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Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training

Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Luis Suarez-Arrones, José Antonio Casajús, and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva


To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and changeof-direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance.


Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs.


Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94).


Six weeks of low-volume (4–14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.