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Michael J. Buono, Julia J. Roby, Frank G. Micale, James F. Sallis and W. Elizabeth Shepard

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of three of the most commonly used field tests to predict maximum oxygen uptake in children and adolescents. VO2max was directly measured during a maximal treadmill test in 90 children (10-18 yrs). Each subject also performed, in duplicate, a timed distance run (1 mile), a step test, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test. A multiple regression equation was developed with directly measured VO2max as the dependent variable and mile-run time, gender, skinfold thickness, and body weight as independent variables. The equation had a multiple R=0.84 and a standard error of estimate of 9%, or 4.3 ml/kg/min. The results suggest that when the three most commonly used field tests to predict aerobic capacity are compared in the same group of children, the timed distance run is superior in both validity and reliability.

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Pavle Mikulic

Purpose:

To examine variations in physical, physiological, and performance parameters over an annual training cycle in a world champion rowing crew.

Methods:

Four world-class rowers, all of them members of the men’s heavyweight quadruple sculls squad who are current world rowing champions, were assessed 3 times at regular 4-mo intervals during the 2011 season (November 2010, March 2011, and July 2011). Physical assessments included stature, body mass, body composition, whereas physiological and performance assessments obtained during an incremental rowing ergometer test to exhaustion included maximum oxygen uptake and anaerobic gas-exchange threshold with corresponding power output values.

Results:

Body mass (∼95 kg) and body composition (∼12% body fat) remained stable over the annual training cycle. Power output at anaerobic gas-exchange threshold increased +16% from November to July, whereas the corresponding oxygen uptake, expressed as a percentage of maximum oxygen uptake, increased from 83% to 90%. Maximum oxygen uptake decreased from 6.68 L/min in November to 6.10 L/min in March before rising to 6.51 L/min in July. The corresponding power output increased steadily from 450 W to 481 W.

Conclusion:

Seasonal variation in body mass and body composition of 4 examined world-class rowers was minimal. Oxygen uptake and power output corresponding to anaerobic threshold continuously increased from off-season to peak competition season. Seasonal variation in maximum oxygen uptake reached ∼10%; however, it remained above 6 L/min, that is, the value consistently observed in top caliber heavyweight rowers regardless of the time of the assessment.

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Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Alejandro R. Triviño, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Alejandro De-la-O, Jørn W. Helge and Jonatan R. Ruiz

protocol is considered an important factor in endurance exercise performance as well and in cardiovascular health. 5 Moreover, another important variable is the exercise intensity at which MFO occurs, so called Fat max . Both MFO and Fat max , together with maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), VO 2 max

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Stephen A. Ingham, Jamie S. Pringle, Sarah L. Hardman, Barry W. Fudge and Victoria L. Richmond

Purpose:

This study examined parameters derived from both an incremental step-wise and a ramp-wise graded rowing exercise test in relation to rowing performance.

Methods:

Discontinuous step-wise incremental rowing to exhaustion established lactate threshold (LT), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2maxSTEP), and power associated with VO2max (W VO2max). A further continuous ramp-wise test was undertaken to derive ventilatory threshold (VT), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2maxRAMP), and maximum minute power (MMW). Results were compared with maximal 2000-m ergometer time-trial power.

Results:

The strongest correlation with 2000-m power was observed for MMW (r = .98, P < .001), followed by W VO2max (r = .96; P < .001). The difference between MMW and W VO2max compared with the mean of MMW/W VO2max showed a widening bias with a greater difference coincident with greater power. However, this bias was reduced when expressed as a ratio term and when a baseline VO2 was accounted for. There were no differences (P = .85) between measures of VO2maxSTEP and VO2maxRAMP; rather, the measures showed strong association (r = .97, P < .001, limits of agreement = −0.43 to 0.33 L/min). The power at LT and VT did not differ (P = .6), and a significant association was observed (r = .73, P = .001, limits of agreement = −54.3 to 20.2 W, SEE = 26.1).

Conclusions:

This study indicates that MMW demonstrates a strong association with ergometer rowing performance and thus may have potential as an influential monitoring tool for rowing athletes.

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli

his anaerobic threshold (AT), maximum workload (W max ), and maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). A measurement of gas exchange was performed with a gas analyzer (ULTIMA CPX; MedGraphics, St. Paul, MN) calibrated immediately before the IET. The test consisted of a linear increase of workload (20 W

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Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Erlend Hem, Svein Leirstein and Stephen Seiler

Purpose:

To quantify VO2max among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the evolution of VO2max among world-class players over an 18-y period was quantified.

Methods:

Female players (N = 199, 22 ± 4 y, 63 ± 6 kg, height 169 ± 6 cm), including an Olympic winning squad, were tested for VO2max at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1989 and 2007.

Results:

National-team players had 5% higher VO2max than 1st-division players (P = .042, d = 0.4), 13% higher than 2nd-division players (P < .001, d = 1.2), and 9% higher than junior players (P = .005, d = 1.0). Midfielders had 8% higher VO2max than goalkeepers (P = .048, d = 1.1). No significant differences were observed across outfield players or different age categories. There was a trend toward lower relative VO2max across time epochs.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrated that VO2max varies across playing-standard level in women’s soccer. No significant differences in VO2max were observed across outfield positions and age categories. Over time, there has been a slight negative development in VO2max among elite Norwegian soccer players.

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Mark Kramer, Mark Watson, Rosa Du Randt and Robert W. Pettitt

The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIR1) emerged as a popular option for evaluating performance readiness of players in team-based sports. 4 – 7 The YYIR1 is often used, incorrectly, as a surrogate for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ). However, knowledge of V ˙ O 2 max

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Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Vicky Drapeau, David Thivel and Marie-Eve Mathieu

them with the procedures of the experimental visits (see details below). Maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) was measured with indirect calorimetry (MOXUS; AEI Technology, Pittsburgh, PA). A progressive test on the treadmill adapted from the shuttle test was performed ( Leger et al., 1988 ). The test

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Gerrie Schäperclaus, Mathieu de Greef, Piet Rispens, Danielle de Calonne, Martin Landsman, Kong I. Lie and Jan Oudhof

An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting Patients with Cardiac Problems (NPCP, n = 60; 52 men and 8 women). Patients were a random sample from two hospitals in the Netherlands. In comparison with NPCP, the SPCP group showed a greater maximum oxygen uptake, a higher degree of perceived well-being, and a lower risk factor level. After correction for differences in cardiac and personal characteristics, SPCP yielded an independent significant multivariate effect on maximum oxygen uptake, perceived well-being, and risk factor level. Therefore, the application and integration of SPCP in cardiac rehabilitation should be further investigated.

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Thomas W. Rowland

In adults, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) serves as a useful indicator of cardiopulmonary reserve as well as performance in endurance exercise events. Whether VO2max can be interpreted in the same manner in children is less certain, since maximal oxygen uptake per kg body weight remains essentially stable during the growing years while endurance performance improves dramatically. Gains in ability in endurance events may be achieved through improved submaximal exercise economy, qualitative changes in oxygen delivery not indicated by VO2max, or the development of nonaerobic factors (speed, strength). Maximal oxygen uptake in children may therefore be a less valid indicator of cardiopulmonary function, endurance capacity, and response to training than in adult subjects.