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John W. Chow

The purposes of this study were to develop a cinematographic technique to obtain selected parameters over an entire 100-m ran and to evaluate selected characteristics of the maximum speed phase (MSP) and the final phase (FP) for female high school runners. The MSP was defined as the part of the 100-m run consisting of the five consecutive strides which together have the largest average speed value, and the FP as the last 10 m of the 100-m run. Twelve sprinters with best 100-m times from 12.3 to 13.4 s served as subjects. The major findings of this study were that (a) maximum speeds of 8.0-8.4 m/s were reached 23-37 m from the start, (b) an average of 7.3% of the maximum speed was lost by the FP, (c) no significant difference was found between the average stride lengths during the MSP and the FP, (d) the average stride frequency during the FP was equal to 93% of the corresponding value during the MSP, and (e) the decrease in average speed from the MSP to the FP was associated with an increase in support time from the MSP to the FP.

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Marko T. Korhonen, Harri Suominen, Jukka T. Viitasalo, Tuomas Liikavainio, Markku Alen and Antti A. Mero

Eighteen young (23 ± 4 yr) and 25 older (70 ± 4 yr) male sprinters were examined for ground reaction force (GRF) and temporal-spatial variables. The data were collected during maximum-speed phase, and variability and symmetry indices were calculated from a total of 8 steps. There was little variation (CV < 6%) in vertical and resultant GRF and kinematic variables, while impact loading had high variability (CV: 10–21%). Overall, the pattern of variability was similar in both groups. Yet, a small but significant age-related increase in CV was evident in horizontal GRFs. There was a variable-specific asymmetry between legs but it was not related to leg dominance. No age differences existed in the symmetry indices. Results indicate that only selected force platform variables are symmetric and repeatable enough so that their use for comparison purposes is appropriate. Data also suggest that aging may increase variability in certain biomechanical measures, whereas symmetry is not affected by age.

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Warren Young, Andrew Russell, Peter Burge, Alex Clarke, Stuart Cormack and Glenn Stewart

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between split times within sprint tests over 30 m and 40 m in elite Australian Rules footballers.

Methods:

Data were analyzed from two Australian Football League (AFL) clubs. The first club (n = 35) conducted a 40-m sprint test and recorded split times at 10 m and 20 m. The second club (n = 30) conducted a 30-m sprint test and recorded splits at 10 m and 20 m. Analyses included calculation of Pearson correlations and common variances between all the split times as well as “flying” times (20–40 m for the first club and 20 to 30 m for the second club).

Results:

There was a high correlation (r = 0.94) between 10-m time and 20-m time within each club, indicating these measures assessed very similar speed qualities. The correlations between 10-m time and times to 30 m and 40 m decreased, but still produced common variances of 79% and 66% respectively. However when the “flying” times (20–40 m and 20–30 m) were correlated to 10-m time, the common variances decreased substantially to 25% and 42% respectively, indicating uniqueness.

Conclusions:

It was concluded that 10-m time is a good refection of acceleration capabilities and either 20 to 40 m in a 40-m sprint test or 20 to 30 m in a 30-m sprint test can be used to estimate maximum speed capabilities. It was suggested that sprint tests over 30 m or 40 m can be conducted indoors to provide useful information about independent speed qualities in athletes.

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Jason D. Vescovi

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maximum sprint speed on peak and mean sprint speed during youth female field hockey matches. Two high-level female field hockey teams (U-17, n = 24, and U-21, n = 20) were monitored during a 4-game international test series using global position system technology and tested for maximum sprint speed. Dependent variables were compared using a 3-factor ANOVA (age group, position, and speed classification); effect sizes (Cohen d) and confidence limits were also calculated. Maximum sprint speed was similar between age groups and positions, with faster players having greater speed than slower players (29.3 ± 0.4 vs 27.2 ± 1.1 km/h). Overall, peak match speed in youth female field hockey players reaches approximately 90% of maximum sprint speed. Absolute peak match speed and mean sprint speed during matches were similar among the age groups (except match 1) and positions (except match 2); however, peak match speed was greater for faster players in matches 3 and 4. No differences were observed in the relative proportion for mean sprint speeds for age groups or positions, but slower players consistently displayed similar relative mean sprint speeds by using a greater proportion of their maximum sprint speed.

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Sergio L. Molina and David F. Stodden

consistent than the higher skilled performers except at 90–100% maximum speed. As previously mentioned, there were no differences in spatial accuracy across the entire spectrum of throwing speed percentages. Chappell et al. ( 2016 ) followed a similar methodology to Urbin et al. ( 2012 ) when examining IV

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

such as Stone et al 8 recommend the SSP because it includes a repeated sprint test halfway through each of the 6 bouts and nonlinear sprint actions at maximum speed (agility tests). The latest comparative studies, suggest that players’ performance is similar on AT and NG, 6 – 8 although it has been

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

generation, and thus walking speed (eg, muscle strengthening or power training), seem to convey benefits only during maximum speed walking. 5 Thus, measures of push-off intensity available during maximum speed walking are likely distinct from those habitually utilized or available at preferred speeds. As we

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Marcus J. Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K. Drew and Jordan Stares

workload ceiling Individual’s highest 1-wk acute load for the current season 2  Chronic workload ceiling Individual’s highest 4-wk chronic load for the current season 2  Season high maximal velocity Individual’s new maximum speed for that season Novel—“PB effect” Underload/ill prepared for competitive

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Manuel Terraza-Rebollo and Ernest Baiget

according to the authors. As a consequence, the subjects performed dynamic contractions of BP, HS or both (BP + HS) at 80% 1RM (BP: 35.6 [11.6] kg; HS: 68.7 [18.2] kg), lifting the load at maximum speed, accomplishing 3 sets of 3 repetitions when BP or HS conditions were performed and 2 sets of 3

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Sabrine N. Costa, Edgar R. Vieira and Paulo C. B. Bento

asked to only say the color in which the words were written while walking at usual and at maximum speed (Stroop test; Jensen & Rohwer, 1966 ). The following gait variables were collected using the walkway: speed, cadence, stride time, length, and width, single, double support, and swing time over at