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Danielle Peers

reflexive ways of thinking. Axiological Issues Across Paradigms Axiology and Doing Meaningful APA Research Markula and Silk ( 2011 ) argued that sport and physical activity scholars should do meaningful research, that is, research that not only identifies how participant “experiences become meaningful

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Shane Pill and Brendon Hyndman

& Thorpe, 1982 ). GBAs bring a focus to the explicit teaching of game understanding and, thus, meaningful game participation. However, we argue that GBAs do not necessarily demonstrate superiority in assisting learners to make the meaning of movement in the context of their personal story, and is an

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Ang Chen

A theoretical framework distinguishing meaning and meaningfulness guided this study of high school students’ conceptions of meaningfulness in physical education. A 9-dimensional meaningfulness construct was developed through analyzing former high school students’ (N = 35) oral reflection on physical education. A 9-dimensional meaningfulness scale was prepared and administered to high school students (N = 698). The principal component analysis reduced the students’ responses to a 6-dimensional construct: Social Bonding, Cultural Appreciation, Challenge, Tension Release, Fitness Development, and Self-Expression. The construct was modified through confirmatory factor analyses and had a Goodness of Fit Index of .91. The reconstruction demonstrated sophisticated internalization of perceived meaning by students. AMANOVA revealed that the students’ conceptions of meaningfulness differentiated (p < .05) based on gender, grade, and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that a pluralistic perspective be considered in curriculum design, given the sophistication and differentiation of students’ conceptions of meaningfulness in physical education.

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Norm Chouinard

Sport management programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels have proliferated over the past 2 decades. In most if not all of these programs, the internship course component has been identified as a vital element in professional preparation programs. Teacher/coordinators of sport management programs that include an internship component must be highly skilled to meet student needs. Equally important in the effective delivery of these programs is the need for the university to fully endorse the value of student internships through proper financial, technical, and human resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a review of the literature, the goals and objectives of student internships, program characteristics of meaningful internships, and future implications for teacher/coordinators of sport management programs. Professors of sport management must act as change agents to further enhance the quality of student internships in professional preparation programs.

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Alex V. Rowlands

Meaningful , Interpretable , and Comparable . Comparable across populations, yet interpretable for a given population, can seem contradictory. However, the metric itself need not be population-specific; instead: (2) Move population-specific translation and interpretation to postprocessing

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Keven A. Prusak, Tirza Davis, Todd R. Pennington and Carol Wilkinson

Couched in attitude theory, this follow-up study examines children-voiced perceptions of enjoyment and usefulness toward a district mandated elementary physical education (PE) program. Attitudes of 277 5th and 6th grade males and females from four representative schools from within a district were assessed in a mixed methods study. Survey results were analyzed to examine between groups, schools (based on SES), and gender differences. Twelve males and twelve females were selected from lowest and highest survey responders for follow-up interviews. Survey results indicated a generally positive attitudes (enjoyment: M = 2.71, SD = 0.35; usefulness M =2.69, SD = 0.35) with significant enjoyment differences (F(3, 266) = 5.627, p ≤ .001) noted between schools. Qualitative results define quality PE as enjoyable and useful when it (a) provided a fun, social, learning environment and activities, (b) made an impact on healthy knowledge and behaviors, and (c) consisted of well managed classes taught by engaging teachers.

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Alan M. Batterham and William G. Hopkins

A study of a sample provides only an estimate of the true (population) value of an outcome statistic. A report of the study therefore usually includes an inference about the true value. Traditionally, a researcher makes an inference by declaring the value of the statistic statistically significant or non significant on the basis of a P value derived from a null-hypothesis test. This approach is confusing and can be misleading, depending on the magnitude of the statistic, error of measurement, and sample size. The authors use a more intuitive and practical approach based directly on uncertainty in the true value of the statistic. First they express the uncertainty as confidence limits, which define the likely range of the true value. They then deal with the real-world relevance of this uncertainty by taking into account values of the statistic that are substantial in some positive and negative sense, such as beneficial or harmful. If the likely range overlaps substantially positive and negative values, they infer that the outcome is unclear; otherwise, they infer that the true value has the magnitude of the observed value: substantially positive, trivial, or substantially negative. They refine this crude inference by stating qualitatively the likelihood that the true value will have the observed magnitude (eg, very likely beneficial). Quantitative or qualitative probabilities that the true value has the other 2 magnitudes or more finely graded magnitudes (such as trivial, small, moderate, and large) can also be estimated to guide a decision about the utility of the outcome.

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Candace J. Norton

Persons discover, create and express meanings; they are choosing and self-assertive … heart and reason are interwoven. Individuals learn what has personal meaning for them, and their knowledge is an active creation. Institutions are to be developed and organized so that the growth of personal meaning emerges. (Tyler & Goodlad, 1979, p. 203)

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Vinson H. Sutlive and Dale A. Ulrich

The unqualified use of statistical significance tests for interpreting the results of empirical research has been called into question by researchers in a number of behavioral disciplines. This paper reviews what statistical significance tells us and what it does not, with particular attention paid to criticisms of using the results of these tests as the sole basis for evaluating the overall significance of research findings. In addition, implications for adapted physical activity research are discussed. Based on the recent literature of other disciplines, several recommendations for evaluating and reporting research findings are made. They include calculating and reporting effect sizes, selecting an alpha level larger than the conventional .05 level, placing greater emphasis on replication of results, evaluating results in a sample size context, and employing simple research designs. Adapted physical activity researchers are encouraged to use specific modifiers when describing findings as significant.

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Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker and Erica Pratt

The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.