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Richard Fletcher

Measurement has a high profile in sport and exercise psychology research and provides the basis for examining and developing theory. The current state of sport and exercise psychology is one of complex models and theories, and sophisticated measurement methods are required to fully understand and develop these. This paper promotes a current and powerful measurement approach, item response theory, and demonstrates how it can be applied to sport and exercise psychological constructs to enhance the quality of instrument development and strengthen construct validity.

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Michelle L. Granner and Patricia A. Sharpe

Background:

Promotion of physical activity is a public health priority, and environmental factors influence physical activity behavior. Valid and reliable automated measurement tools of physical activity for assessment and evaluation within public settings are needed.

Methods:

Searches of the research literature and governmental reports from physical activity, transportation, and recreation fields were conducted to identify methods of automated counting and validation studies. The article provides a summary of (a) current methods and uses of automated counters, (b) information about validity and reliability where available, (c) strengths and limitations of each method, and (d) measurement issues.

Results:

Existing automated counting technology has strengths and limitations. Infrared sensors have been the most commonly used type of monitor and can mark date and time of passage, but are vulnerable to errors due to environmental conditions; cannot detect more than one person passing at a time; cannot identify mode of activity or distinguish among individuals; and lack consistent and adequate reliability for use in open spaces. Seismic devices and inductive loops may be useful for specific applications. More information is needed concerning the validity and reliability of infrared sensors, seismic devices, and inductive loops for confined areas. Computer imaging systems hold potential to address some of the limitations of other automated counters and for applications in both confined and open areas, but validation research is in the initial stages.

Conclusions:

Although automated monitoring is a promising method for measurement of physical activity, more research is necessary to determine the acceptable parameters of performance for each type of automated monitor and for which applications each is best suited.

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Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith

The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

assessment and accurate measurement is not possible. Another frequently used evaluation method is with a hand-held dynamometer. However, some specialties of raters such as gender, body weight, and grip strength affect a rater’s reliability in obtaining torque measurements. 6 Isokinetic dynamometers are

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

acquire highly accurate (within 1–3°) kinematic quantification. 6 While continued use of kinematic measurement within the laboratory is important and necessary, there is increased interest in the research and clinical practice communities to capture human motion outside of the laboratory setting. 8 – 10

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Bareket Falk and Raffy Dotan

Measurement of Aerobic Power—Why is it Important? Maximal aerobic power ( V ˙ O 2 max ) is one of the 2 main constituents of aerobic capacity—the other one being aerobic endurance (percentage of V ˙ O 2 max that can be maintained for given distances or durations). Aerobic endurance is difficult

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Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich

The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.

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Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang

measurement invariance (MI) of the Chinese version of the Modified Social Environment Questionnaire (MSEQ-C) (i.e., how accurate the questionnaire items measure the construct). b. The convergent validity of the MSEQ-C. This was assessed by examining the relationship between the MSEQ-C and the Chinese version

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

social support, often derived from team members in a sport setting ( Inoue, Funk, Wann, Yoshida, & Nakazawa, 2015 ). Altogether, the factors contribute to overall well-being. In an effort to create a comprehensive measurement instrument encompassing all three dimensions of well-being, Keyes ( 2002

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

classes were asked to wear an accelerometer (n = 886). This study utilizes accelerometer data collected during baseline measurements only, which were collected in October 2012 (cohort 1) and October 2013 (cohort 2) for 2 phases of the program. Full details of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme trial are