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Nicolas Farina, Laura J. Hughes, Amber Watts and Ruth G. Lowry

Measuring physical activity is complicated, with trade-offs between the different types of available measures in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and feasibility ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sylvia, Bernstein, Hubbard, Keating, & Anderson, 2014 ). Physical activity questionnaires have a distinct place

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Anne Vernez Moudon, Chanam Lee, Allen D. Cheadle, Cheza Garvin, Donna Johnson, Thomas L. Schmid, Robert D. Weathers and Lin Lin


The concept of walkable neighborhoods is increasingly important in physical activity research and intervention. However, limited theoretical understanding and measurable definitions remain a challenge.


This paper reviews theories defining neighborhoods and offers an empirical approach to identify measurable attributes and thresholds of walkable neighborhoods. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used for self-reported socio-demographic background, neighborhood walking behavior and perception, and objective measures of environments.


Environmental attributes positively associated with walking sufficiently to meet health recommendations included higher residential density and smaller street-blocks around home, and shorter distances to food and daily retail facilities from home. Threshold distances for eating/drinking establishments and grocery stores were 860 and 1445 feet.


Results questioned theoretical constructs of neighborhoods centered on recreation and educational uses. They pointed to finer mixes of uses than those characterizing suburban neighborhoods, and small spatial units of analysis and intervention to capture and promote neighborhood walkability.

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Danielle M. Dobney, Scott G. Thomas, Tim Taha and Michelle Keightley

identification of concussion may result in improper management and detrimental short- and long-term consequences. 2 Current practice recommends assessing multiple domains of function, as no 1 specific test or measure has been shown to be uniquely sensitive to concussion identification and management. 3

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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

goniometry, is performed in a similar manner to goniometry, but the inclinometer is aligned with the distal limb to measure motion. 2 , 4 , 5 The ease and availability of digital inclinometers, specifically those created as smartphone applications, have anecdotally increased the use of inclinometry for ROM

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

sway provided the best reliability, and report on the SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC) of these measures. Methods A total of 62 healthy subjects (out of 72 screened) who were independent in performance of daily activities and who were between the ages of 18 and 85 years (31 females and 31 males

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart

Key Points ▸ Correlations exist between anthropometric measures and transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness, but are influenced by positions and history of low back pain status. ▸ Mass and body mass index were the most consistent normalization variables for the transversus

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Luka Svilar, Julen Castellano, Igor Jukic and David Casamichana

detail than ever before. 2 Since the implementation of this technology has begun only recently, there is not enough data to describe external training demands of basketball players. 9 Even though subjective load measures are not recommended to be used in isolation, they may be employed by coaches and

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Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart

current paper focuses on the athlete-centered outcomes, particularly on the character component, as a proxy of measure of coaching effectiveness. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss what character in athlete-centered outcomes mean and raise awareness of viable options for measuring character

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

Measurement (CRTM) tool and The Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) were used in combination for this study ( Campbell, 2014 ). CRTM measures racial competence while CoBRAS measures racial attitudes. Campbell ( 2014 ) created the Critical Race Theory Measurement (CRTM) tool to analyze individuals

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Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee

game outcomes and consumption emotions. Next, sport consumer emotions have been assessed using retrospective measures instead of real-time-based measure. Several concerns exist with the former method. Real-time-based measures are likely to be more effective than recall-based measures because people can