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Jaimie A. Roper, Ryan T. Roemmich, Mark D. Tillman, Matthew J. Terza and Chris J. Hass

The mechanics of human gait require control of movement in all 3 anatomical planes in order to safely and efficiently navigate our environment. Movements in the sagittal plane are often the primary focus of locomotor research because walking most commonly occurs with a forward orientation and many

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Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk and Gertjan Ettema

Athletic sprint running performance is regulated by a complex interaction of numerous factors. Many studies have examined the mechanics of linear sprinting, with the majority focusing on spatiotemporal variables. The fastest runners maximize their acceleration and sprinting velocities by applying

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

The clinical assessment of breathing and the use of breathing exercises in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal conditions has increased over the last decade. 1 Altered breathing mechanics have been linked to numerous musculoskeletal conditions, 2 – 7 and breathing exercises are being recognized

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Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan and Jean-Benoit Morin

There is a large body of research highlighting the importance of monitoring running mechanics for both performance and injury prevention purposes. 1 – 4 From the performance enhancement perspective, the measurement of leg stiffness, vertical oscillation of the center of mass, and ground contact

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Maggi M. Calo, Thomas Anania, Joseph D. Bello, Valerie A. Cohen, Siobhan C. Stack, Meredith D. Wells, Barbara C. Belyea, Deborah L. King and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon

affect inter-tablet reliability, there is a possibility that the sex differences in landing mechanics or even variations in clothing could influence measurement error. Future research should test different populations and find the maximum level of positional variability that is acceptable in clinical

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

pattern has been previously observed and found to optimize throwing mechanics. 27 Examining throwing shoulder kinematics, athletes were positioned with more shoulder adduction and internal rotation as the throw progressed. Based on proper throwing mechanics, the authors expected the shoulder to be in a

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Dorsey S. Williams III, Irene S. McClay, Joseph Hamill and Thomas S. Buchanan

High- and low-arched feet have long been thought to function differently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between arch structure and lower extremity mechanics in runners with extreme pes planus and pes cavus. It was hypothesized that low-arched individuals would exhibit an increased rearfoot eversion excursion, eversion/tibial internal rotation ratio, and increased angular velocity in rearfoot eversion when compared to high-arched runners. In addition, it was hypothesized that high-arched runners would exhibit greater vertical loading rates. Twenty high-arched and 20 low-arched runners with histories of running-related injuries were included in this study. Low-arched runners were found to have increased rearfoot eversion excursion, eversion to tibial internal rotation ratio, and rearfoot eversion velocity. High-arched runners had increased vertical loading rate when compared to low-arched runners. These results suggest that arch structure is associated with specific lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Differences in these parameters may subsequently lead to differences in injury patterns in high-arched and low-arched runners.

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Edward J. Quigley and James G. Richards

This study investigated the mechanical effects that cycling has on running style which may explain the discomfort associated with the transition from cycling to running. The joint angles, angular velocities, reaction forces, and reaction moments of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints as well as stance time, flight time, stride length, and maximum vertical displacement of the center of gravity were measured using high-speed video and ground reaction force data. Data were collected from 11 competitive biathletes and triathletes. Each subject's running mechanics were determined from 10 trials for each of three conditions: (a) unfatigued, (b) immediately following 30 min of running, and (c) immediately following 30 min of bicycling. The results indicate that a person's running mechanics, as described by the variables above, are virtually unchanged between each of the three conditions. Therefore, awkwardness of the bicycle-to-run transition may not be related to a change in running mechanics.

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Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan and Stephen C. Cobb

lower-limb mechanics during stair-climbing . J Bone Joint Surg Am . 1980 ; 62 ( 5 ): 749 – 757 . PubMed doi:10.2106/00004623-198062050-00008. 7391098 10.2106/00004623-198062050-00008 10. Mian OS , Thom JM , Narici MV , Baltzopoulos V . Kinematics

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Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin and Grégoire P. Millet

Purpose:

To determine the intrasession and intersession (ie, within- and between-days) reliability in treadmill sprinting-performance outcomes and associated running mechanics.

Methods:

After familiarization, 13 male recreational sportsmen (team- and racket-sport background) performed three 5-s sprints on an instrumented treadmill with 2 min recovery on 3 different days, 5–7 d apart. Intrasession (comparison of the 3 sprints of the first session) and intersession (comparison of the average of the 3 sprints across days) reliability of performance, kinetics, kinematics, and spring-mass variables were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV%).

Results:

Intrasession reliability was high (ICC > .94 and CV < 8%). Intersession reliability was good for performance indices (.83 < ICC < .89 and CV < 10%, yet with larger variability for mean velocity than for distance covered or propulsive power) and kinetic parameters (ICC > .94 and CV < 5%, yet with larger variability for mean horizontal forces than for mean vertical forces) and ranged from good to high for all kinematic (.88 < ICC < .95 and CV ≤ 3.5%) and spring-mass variables (.86 < ICC < .99 and CV ≤ 6.5%). Compared with intrasession, minimal detectable differences were on average twice larger for intersession designs, except for sprint kinetics.

Conclusion:

Instrumented treadmill sprint offers a reliable method of assessing running mechanics during single sprints either within the same session or between days.