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R. Glenn Cummins, Norman E. Youngblood and Mike Milford

Sport telecasts are frequently the showcase and testing ground for innovative broadcast technologies. One particularly novel example is ESPN’s coverage of college athletics via its multiscreen, or mosaic, format. This experiment tested the impact of its visual complexity by comparing the response of fans high and low in team identification to this format versus a traditional presentation of dull and exciting game play. For highly identified spectators, this format was a detriment to their appreciation of game play, whereas the format had little impact for viewers with low levels of team identification. Moreover, independent of degree of team identification, viewers reported a more negative evaluation of this technique than of a traditional broadcast, and results were consistent regardless of the dull or exciting nature of game play.

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Lauren Reichart Smith

Disposition theory research within mediated sporting events has traditionally looked at the relationship between enjoyment and outcome. A gap currently exists in the theory concerning the effect of the different elements of the mediated content. The purpose of this study was to examine one such element of mediated content. This study used a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects and an experimental design to test the effects of commentary from a United States broadcast on enjoyment. Within the experiment, commentary and outcome were manipulated for two teams of different nationalities. Results showed commentary did have an effect on enjoyment; however, commentary was a stronger predictor of enjoyment than was outcome. In addition, it was found that nationality alone did not have an effect on enjoyment, but commentary and nationality combined did have such an effect. Findings from this study have implications for disposition theory and future research on factors affecting enjoyment.

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David Welch Suggs Jr. and Jason Lee Guthrie

Part of the goal of the International Paralympic Committee is to “touch the heart of all people for a more equitable society” by exposing people to adaptive sports, with the goal of improving public views toward people with disabilities. The authors hypothesized that exposure to parasocial contact with images of athletes with disabilities could lead to a change in attitude during the formation of social identity, disrupting the tendency to view the population of individuals with physical disabilities as “other. ” This case study found that viewing a documentary of a Paralympic sprinter produced in the same style as an Olympic feature appeared to affect the emotional components of attitude formation, especially when compared with respondents who viewed a comparable documentary about an able-bodied athlete. These findings are of interest to proponents of adaptive sports, producers of adaptive-sports media, and marketers who use athletes with disabilities in advertising campaigns.

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Elizabeth A. Baiocchi-Wagner and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz

Attempts at investigating female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness from the audience’s perspective are limited and outdated. This study, grounded in social identity theory, fills the gap in media literature. A quasi-experiment tested respondents’ perceptions of male and female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness as a function of salient gender identity and reporter and athlete sex. Respondents’ sports fandom, frequency of sports-media usage, and general perceptions of news-media credibility also were examined. Results of a MANOVA indicated no significant differences in respondents’ perceptions of a male and female reporter, even when controlling for respondent gender; however, sports fandom and general perceptions of news-media credibility did have a significant impact on perceptions.

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Hans C. Schmidt

, 27 ( 3 ), 293 – 307 . Emmers-Sommer , T.M. , & Allen , M. ( 1999 ). Surveying the effect of media effects: A meta-analytic summary of the media effects research in Human Communication Research . Human Communication Research, 25 ( 4 ), 478 – 497 . doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1999.tb00457.x 10

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Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown, Samuel D. Hakim, Andrew C. Billings and Carla H. Blakey

.M. ( 1986 ). Uses, gratifications, and media effects research . In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp.  281 – 301 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum . Rubin , A.M. , & Perse , E.M. ( 1987 ). Audience activity and television news gratifications . Communication

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

Broadcasting, 27, 37 – 51 . doi:10.1080/08838158309386471 10.1080/08838158309386471 Rubin , A.M. ( 1994 ). Media uses and effects: A uses-and-gratification perspective . In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp.  417 – 436 ). Hillsdale, NJ

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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

, operationalizations and key findings . Journalism, 13 ( 2 ), 221 – 239 . doi:10.1177/1464884911427803 10.1177/1464884911427803 Scheufele , A. ( 1999 ). Framing as a theory of media effects . Journal of Communication, 49 ( 1 ), 103 – 122 . doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb

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Jue Hou, Xiaoxu Yang and Elliot Panek

Journal of the History of Sport, 34, 639 – 655 . doi:10.1080/09523367.2017.1381595 10.1080/09523367.2017.1381595 Scheufele , D. ( 1999 ). Framing as a theory of media effects . Journal of Communication, 49, 103 – 122 . doi:10.1093/joc/49.1.103 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x Scheufele , D

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Bo Li, Olan K.M. Scott, Stirling Sharpe, Qingru Xu and Michael Naraine

). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models . Journal of Communication, 57, 9 – 20 . Scott , O. , Billings , A. , Xu , Q. , Sharpe , S. , & Lewis , M. ( 2018 ). Relaying Rio through an Australian gaze: Australian nationalistic broadcast focus in the