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Disabling Prejudice: A Case Study of Images of Paralympic Athletes and Attitudes Toward People With Disabilities

David Welch Suggs Jr. and Jason Lee Guthrie

Part of the goal of the International Paralympic Committee is to “touch the heart of all people for a more equitable society” by exposing people to adaptive sports, with the goal of improving public views toward people with disabilities. The authors hypothesized that exposure to parasocial contact with images of athletes with disabilities could lead to a change in attitude during the formation of social identity, disrupting the tendency to view the population of individuals with physical disabilities as “other. ” This case study found that viewing a documentary of a Paralympic sprinter produced in the same style as an Olympic feature appeared to affect the emotional components of attitude formation, especially when compared with respondents who viewed a comparable documentary about an able-bodied athlete. These findings are of interest to proponents of adaptive sports, producers of adaptive-sports media, and marketers who use athletes with disabilities in advertising campaigns.

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Audience Perceptions of Female Sports Reporters: A Social-Identity Approach

Elizabeth A. Baiocchi-Wagner and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz

Attempts at investigating female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness from the audience’s perspective are limited and outdated. This study, grounded in social identity theory, fills the gap in media literature. A quasi-experiment tested respondents’ perceptions of male and female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness as a function of salient gender identity and reporter and athlete sex. Respondents’ sports fandom, frequency of sports-media usage, and general perceptions of news-media credibility also were examined. Results of a MANOVA indicated no significant differences in respondents’ perceptions of a male and female reporter, even when controlling for respondent gender; however, sports fandom and general perceptions of news-media credibility did have a significant impact on perceptions.

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Can Visual Complexity Impede Impact Appreciation of Mediated Sports? Team Identification and Viewer Response to a Complex Presentation of College Football

R. Glenn Cummins, Norman E. Youngblood, and Mike Milford

Sport telecasts are frequently the showcase and testing ground for innovative broadcast technologies. One particularly novel example is ESPN’s coverage of college athletics via its multiscreen, or mosaic, format. This experiment tested the impact of its visual complexity by comparing the response of fans high and low in team identification to this format versus a traditional presentation of dull and exciting game play. For highly identified spectators, this format was a detriment to their appreciation of game play, whereas the format had little impact for viewers with low levels of team identification. Moreover, independent of degree of team identification, viewers reported a more negative evaluation of this technique than of a traditional broadcast, and results were consistent regardless of the dull or exciting nature of game play.

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Winning Isn’t Everything: The Effect of Nationalism Bias on Enjoyment of a Mediated Sporting Event

Lauren Reichart Smith

Disposition theory research within mediated sporting events has traditionally looked at the relationship between enjoyment and outcome. A gap currently exists in the theory concerning the effect of the different elements of the mediated content. The purpose of this study was to examine one such element of mediated content. This study used a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects and an experimental design to test the effects of commentary from a United States broadcast on enjoyment. Within the experiment, commentary and outcome were manipulated for two teams of different nationalities. Results showed commentary did have an effect on enjoyment; however, commentary was a stronger predictor of enjoyment than was outcome. In addition, it was found that nationality alone did not have an effect on enjoyment, but commentary and nationality combined did have such an effect. Findings from this study have implications for disposition theory and future research on factors affecting enjoyment.

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Media Presentations of Olympic Victories and Nation-Related Identification Among Viewers: The Influence of Emotions Induced by Sportscasts

Michael Mutz and Markus Gerke

identity and group emotion: Media effects and support for military intervention . International Journal of Communication, 13, 2535 – 2555 . Choi , Y.T. ( 2010 ). Media exposure on WBC, perception of the Japanese national team, and purchasing attitude on Japanese products . Korean Journal of

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Sports Media as Empathy Facilitator: The Contrasting Influence of Paralympic and Olympic Content

Kim Bissell, Andrew C. Billings, and Bumsoo Park

Exposure is the core in which media-effects scholarship is born; yet, for athletes with disabilities, that exposure has been a long time coming. Long “missing in action” ( Hardin et al., 2001 , p. 1), proliferation of sports cable networks now finally allows for at least the potential of garnering

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Sport Reporting in an Era of Activism: Examining the Intersection of Sport Media and Social Activism

Hans C. Schmidt

, 27 ( 3 ), 293 – 307 . Emmers-Sommer , T.M. , & Allen , M. ( 1999 ). Surveying the effect of media effects: A meta-analytic summary of the media effects research in Human Communication Research . Human Communication Research, 25 ( 4 ), 478 – 497 . doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1999.tb00457.x 10

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Looking for Information in All the Right Places? Outlet Types of Social Media Information and National Basketball Association Fan Desires

Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown, Samuel D. Hakim, Andrew C. Billings, and Carla H. Blakey

.M. ( 1986 ). Uses, gratifications, and media effects research . In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp.  281 – 301 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum . Rubin , A.M. , & Perse , E.M. ( 1987 ). Audience activity and television news gratifications . Communication

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From Athlete to Advocate: The Changing Media Coverage of Michael Phelps Pre- and Postretirement

Joshua R. Jackson, Emily J. Dirks, and Andrew C. Billings

hero: An introduction to Homer’s Iliad . University Of California Press . 10.1525/9780520341067 Scheufele , D.A. ( 1999 ). Framing as a theory of media effects . Journal of Communication, 49, 103 – 122 . 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x

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Sport-Related-Concussions Pilot Study: Athletic Training Students’ Media Use and Perceptions of Media Coverage

Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell, and Justin Tatman

Broadcasting, 27, 37 – 51 . doi:10.1080/08838158309386471 10.1080/08838158309386471 Rubin , A.M. ( 1994 ). Media uses and effects: A uses-and-gratification perspective . In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp.  417 – 436 ). Hillsdale, NJ