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Representation of Athletic Girls on Young Adult Sport Fiction Cover Art

Emily A. Roper and José A. Santiago

also a vital component of the conversation surrounding representation. Bruce ( 2016 ) noted that an important limitation of the research dedicated to sport media representation of women is the privileging of gender identity at the expense of its intersections with race, ethnicity, age, ability, and

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Improving Communication Effects and Value in Professional Soccer: An Analysis of the Chinese Super League

Qiwei Huang and Ryan M. Brewer

This case examines dilemmas evolving in China’s premier soccer league, the Chinese Super League. A plan is suggested for confronting the league’s challenges, with recommendations that focus on creating a harmonious and competitive league. Challenges arise from the political and economic transformation currently taking place in China, affecting league operations. While the league stands at a precipice of change on the eve of the Beijing Olympic Games, its viability as a going concern is uncertain. Part of the uncertainty derives from an unregulated system of league policies that have been poorly communicated and unenforced, resulting in discord. Development of league regulations and communication protocols remains largely government driven and would be best if consistent with the local culture, but commercial issues of league operations are also important. Enhancing the effectiveness and consistency of culture-sensitive communication protocols—especially between the government, media, and league officials—will increase participation from league stakeholders.

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A Social Media Analysis of the Gendered Representations of Female and Male Athletes During the 2018 Commonwealth Games

Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot, and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

different perspectives and neutralize the masculine sports culture, especially among the younger generation, as 99% of Australians in the 15–17 years of age group are internet users ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016 ). Nevertheless, limited research has investigated the social media representation of

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Becoming European Through Football Media? Representations of Europe in German Football News Coverage

Jonas Biel, Tobias Finger, Vincent Reinke, Jennifer Amann, Arne Niemann, and Marc Jungblut

In recent decades, the administrative and competitive structures of men’s elite club football in Europe have undergone a profound transformation toward Europeanization. As a result, football fans are increasingly exposed to European influences. These dynamics shape fans’ perceptions of and orientations toward Europe and contribute to constructions of collective identities. Because football is a highly mediatized sport, fans’ exposure to European influences and their constructions of identity are highly dependent on the representation of Europe in football media. To analyze this, we conducted a quantitative analysis of text-based online news media. Using selected German media outlets, we examined the extent and the patterned variation of media representation of Europe in football news articles. Our results indicate a highly selective media environment focused on a limited set of countries with high sporting relevance and a presence of German national-team players, while other countries rarely enter the media discourse.

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Image and Investment: Sponsorship and Women's Sport

Sally Shaw and John Amis

Studies that have examined the disparity in investment between men's and women's sports are rare and are generally distributional in nature. Little research has been carried out that has explored the reasons why managers tend to invest in men's sport instead of women's. Given the rise in sponsorship spending, and the increasingly strategic nature of such investments, this represents an important gap in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to explore conceptually and empirically some of the possible reasons for this disparity. By examining the agreements made by the sponsors of two international women's sports teams, we found support for the contention that the values and beliefs of decision makers, the media representation of sport, and mimetic pressures on managers combine to heavily influence decisions about what and who to sponsor. We also suggest that if such factors can be overcome, women's sport has the potential to be a very useful marketing tool for certain firms.

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An xG of Their Own: Using Expected Goals to Explore the Analytical Shortcomings of Misapplied Gender Schemas in Football

Sachin Narayanan and N. David Pifer

Although professional women’s football has benefitted from recent surges in popularity, challenges to progress and distinguish the sport persist. The gender-schema theory explains the tendency for individuals to hold female sports to male standards, a phenomenon that leads to negative outcomes in areas such as media representation and consumer perception. One area in which schemas have a more discreet effect is player and team performance, where the assumption that technical metrics developed in men’s football are transferable to women’s football remains unfounded. Using expected goals, a metric synonymous with the probability of a shot being scored, we highlight how variables important to shot quality and shot execution differ across gender, and how attempts to evaluate female footballers with models built on men’s data increase estimation errors. These results have theoretical and practical implications for the role they play in reframing schemas and improving the methods used to evaluate performance in women’s sports.

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Television Coverage of Professional Golf: A Focus on Gender

Karen H. Weiller and Catriona T. Higgs

Patriarchal ideology and subsequent gender differences are reproduced in various cultural practices, with organized sport being one of the most important and critical arenas for perpetuating this ideology. Conventions for representing gender in mass media have come under increasing scrutiny during the last 25 years (Boutilier & San Giovanni, 1983; Higgs & Weiller, 1994; Weiller & Higgs, 1993). In this study we endeavored to increase current understanding of how gender is represented in the production and content of televised coverage of four professional golf tournaments. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to analyze the content of gender images in televised coverage of womenis and men’s professional golf tournaments. Based upon the results, gender marking/comparisons were consistently present throughout the two women’s events examined, and differentials existed with respect to time allocations in story focus for male and female golfers. Noticeable differentials were found in commentators’ descriptions of strength, as well as type of personal information provided.With this study, an extention of previous research, we demonstraed that what is occurring in media representation of female athletes is mirrored in the professional world. In addition we advance the coverage by previous researchers and highlight the inequities that exist in one of the few areas of professional sports open to women.

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Disability, the Media, and the Paralympic Games, 1st ed.

Joshua R. Pate

Jackson-Brown’s book, Disability, the Media, and the Paralympic Games , offers a behind-the-curtain scholarly examination of the strategic approach and dilemmas about broadcasting the Paralympic Games. Jackson-Brown relies on a mix of scholarship, interviews, and personal application of media

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Managing the Paralympics

Ljudmila Zaletelj

the topics pertinent to the management of Paralympic Games: policy, stakeholders, accessibility, legacy, doping, classification, volunteer management, media representation, marketing, and sponsorship. Managing the Paralympics is the first book dedicated to the analysis of the core managerial

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Challenging the Gender Dichotomy: Examining Olympic Channel Content Through a Gendered Lens

Qingru Xu and Andrew C. Billings

platforms within certain national contexts. The establishment of the Olympic Channel by the IOC, a nongovernment and nonprofit independent organization committed to promoting the Olympic Movement throughout the world, provides researchers with a unique opportunity to examine gendered media representation in