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Increasing Employees’ Health by Workplace Physical Activity Counseling: The Mediating Role of Step-Based Physical Activity Behavior Change

Anass Arrogi, Astrid Schotte, An Bogaerts, Filip Boen, and Jan Seghers

intervention, that is, an increase in step-based PA, with health-related outcomes. To this aim, it is examined whether the PA counseling intervention effectuates health-related fitness and well-being and whether the change in step-based PA behavior mediates a change in health-related fitness and well-being. It

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Exploring the Mediating Role of Social Support and Fall Efficacy on the Association Between Falls and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Assisted-Living Population

Nadja Schott and Maike Tietjens

relationships among the relevant factors simultaneously (e.g., perceived social support, falls efficacy, and physical activity). In addition, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the relationship between falls and physical activity through mediating factors such as social

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The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion on the Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Sport-Confidence

Arash Assar, Robert Weinberg, Rose Marie Ward, and Robin S. Vealey

that self-compassion positively relates to self-confidence in university athletes ( Mohebi et al., 2019 ). The Current Research Research has linked task orientation with greater confidence and ego orientation with poorer confidence; however, no study has empirically examined what variables mediate this

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The Longitudinal Mediating Influence of Maturation on the Relationship Between Strength and Performance in Male Youth Swimmers

Shaun Abbott, Wei En Leong, Tom Gwinn, Giovanni Luca Postiglione, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

present study had 2 aims. First, it examined the longitudinal relationships between shoulder internal rotation strength, maturity status, and performance in age-group competitive swimmers (aim 1). Second, it assessed whether maturity status partially or fully mediated the relationship between shoulder

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Mediating Effects of Peripheral Vision in the Life Event Stress/Athletic Injury Relationship

Tracie J. Rogers and Daniel M. Landers

The mediating effect of peripheral narrowing in the negative life event stress (N-LES)/athletic injury relationship was investigated. LES and other psychosocial variables were measured, and peripheral vision was assessed in nonstressful (practice day) and stressful (game day) sport situations. Results showed that total LES, N-LES, and psychological coping skills significantly contributed to the prediction of the occurrence of athletic injury. Additionally, psychological coping skills buffered the N-LES/athletic injury relationship. Peripheral narrowing during stress significantly mediated 8.1% of the N-LES/athletic injury relationship. The findings support the predictions of the model of stress and injury, provide evidence for peripheral narrowing as a mechanism in the LES/athletic injury relationship, and suggest directions for future research examining mediating effects in the model of stress and injury.

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Participation in Sport and Moral Functioning: Does Ego Orientation Mediate Their Relationship?

Maria Kavussanu and Nikos Ntoumanis

This study examined whether participation in contact sports influences moral functioning within the sport context, and whether these effects are mediated by ego orientation; the role of task orientation on moral functioning was also examined. Participants (N = 221) were college athletes participating in basketball, soccer, field hockey, and rugby. They completed questionnaires assessing sport participation, goal orientations, moral functioning, and social desirability. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that participation in contact sports positively predicted ego orientation, which in turn predicted low levels of moral functioning. The direct effects of sport participation on moral functioning became nonsignificant in the presence of ego orientation, indicating that the latter construct mediates the relationship between the first two variables. Task orientation corresponded to high levels of moral functioning. These findings help us further understand the processes operating in contact sports and are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportspersonlike conduct from the sport context.

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Effects of Goal Orientation and Perceived Value of Toughness on Antisocial Behavior in Soccer: The Mediating Role of Moral Disengagement

Ian David Boardley and Maria Kavussanu

In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.

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Coping Resources and Athlete Burnout: An Examination of Stress Mediated and Moderation Hypotheses

Thomas D. Raedeke and Alan L. Smith

Although it is widely accepted that coping resources theoretically influence the stress-burnout relationship, it is unclear whether key internal (i.e., coping behaviors) and external (i.e., social support satisfaction) coping resources have stress-mediated or moderating influences on athlete burnout. Therefore we examined whether coping behaviors and social support satisfaction (a) had indirect stress-mediated relationships with burnout or (b) disjunctively (independently) or conjunctively (in combination) moderated the relationship between perceived stress and burnout. Senior level age-group swimmers (N = 244; ages 14–19 years) completed a questionnaire assessing burnout, perceived stress, general coping behaviors, and social support satisfaction. The results revealed that perceived stress, general coping behaviors, and social support satisfaction were related to burnout. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that general coping behaviors and social support satisfaction had stress-mediated relationships with overall burnout levels. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses failed to support the disjunctive and conjunctive moderation hypotheses. Results thus support stress-mediated perspectives forwarded in previous research.

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The Association Between Physical Self-Discrepancies and Women’s Physical Activity: The Mediating Role of Motivation

Jennifer Brunet, Catherine Sabiston, Andree Castonguay, Leah Ferguson, and Natalia Bessette

The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M age = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R 2 = .24–.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.

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Do Perceptions of Competence Mediate The Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Physical Activity Levels of Children in Kindergarten?

Jeff R. Crane, Patti J. Naylor, Ryan Cook, and Viviene A. Temple


Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children’s perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome.


Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation.


The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA.


The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children’s participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.