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Yoshinori Fujiwara, Shoji Shinkai, Shuichiro Watanabe, Shu Kumagai, Takao Suzuki, Hiroshi Shibata, Tanji Hoshi, and Toru Kita

This study investigated the effect of chronic medical conditions on changes in functional capacity in Japanese older adults. Participants comprised 1,518 people aged 65-84 living in an urban and a rural community. They were interviewed to determine the presence of chronic medical conditions and assessed for functional capacity using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence. Follow-up occurred 4 years later. Statistical analysis revealed that self-reported medical conditions at baseline contributed to declines in the TMIG Index over the 4 years, even after participants’ age, sex, educational attainment, and baseline TMIG level were controlled for. In the urban area, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal disease significantly predicted decline in the index, whereas in the rural area, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors. These results indicate the importance of controlling chronic medical conditions in order to prevent further declines in functional capacity in older adults.

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Keith Naugle, Christine Stopka, and Jessica Brennan

Column-editor : G. Monique Butcher Mokha

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Keith Naugle, Christine Stopka, and Jessica Brennan

Column-editor : G. Monique Mokha

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Keith Naugle, Christine Stopka, and Jessica Brennan

Column-editor : G. Monique Butcher Mokha

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Keith Naugle, Christine Stopka, and Jessica Brennan

Column-editor : G. Monique Butcher Mokha

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin, and Janice Causgrove Dunn

Dr. Arya M. Sharma challenges the conventional wisdom of relying simply on “lifestyle” approaches involving exercise, diet, and behavioral interventions for managing obesity, suggesting that people living with obesity should receive comprehensive medical interventions similar to the approach taken for other chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or hypertension. He purports that the stigma-inducing focus on self-failing (e.g., coping through food, laziness, lack of self-regulation) does not address biological processes that make obesity a lifelong problem for which there is no easy solution. Interdisciplinary approaches to obesity are advocated, including that of adapted physical activity. Physical activity has multifaceted impacts beyond increasing caloric expenditure, including improved sleep, better mood, increased energy levels, enhanced self-esteem, reduced stress, and an enhanced sense of well-being. The interview with Dr. Sharma, transcribed from a keynote address delivered at the North American Adapted Physical Activity Symposium on September 22, 2016, in Edmonton, AB, Canada, outlines his rationale for approaching obesity as a chronic disease.

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Nancy D. Groh and Greggory M. Hundt

of medical conditions and illnesses. Self-efficacy relates to how confident an individual feels about carrying out a skill or skill set and is often influenced by performing in a specific situation, making it a critical factor in translating one’s knowledge and skill into successful task completion

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein, and Douglas J. Casa

others further reiterate the importance of HA guidelines and programs and their effectiveness in mitigating risk of EHS ( Adams, Casa, et al., 2016 ; Kerr et al., 2019 ). Medical Conditions Obesity Obesity is thought to influence thermoregulatory responses due to the specific heat of fat (2.97 kJ·kg −1

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Christina Zong-Hao Ma, Wing-Kai Lam, Bao-Chi Chang, and Winson Chiu-Chun Lee

), two studies recruited subjects with no reduced tactile sensitivity only ( de Morais Barbosa et al., 2018 , 2013 ), and the remainder of the studies suggested that their subjects did not have medical conditions that would affect postural balance. Most studies required the subjects to be able to walk

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Kelsie M. Full, Eileen Johnson, Michelle Takemoto, Sheri J. Hartman, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Ruth E. Patterson, and Dorothy D. Sears

medical conditions including high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Age at breast cancer diagnosis, cancer stage and medication being taken at study enrollment (including aromatase Inhibitors) were obtained through medical chart reviews. BMI (measured in kilogram per square meter) was calculated from