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Riana R. Pryor, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin and Zachary Y. Kerr

responsibility of implementing all policies, as well as medical care and rehabilitations, is on a single individual. Perhaps, if additional medical personnel were hired and present during practices, implementation of additional EHI safety strategies would be achieved. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (a

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

Concussion Equipment: headgear, mouthpiece; 16-oz gloves men (≤ 175 lbs), 20-oz gloves men (> 175 lbs); 14-oz gloves women Concussion/participation-limiting injury Medical personnel conduct preparticipation medical screening Concussion Procedures: – Partner drills – Matched sparring – Instructor supervision

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Francis G. O’Connor, Aaron D. Williams, Steve Blivin, Yuval Heled, Patricia Deuster and Scott D. Flinn

Since Biblical times, heat injuries have been a major focus of military medical personnel. Heat illness accounts for considerable morbidity during recruit training and remains a common cause of preventable nontraumatic exertional death in the United States military. This brief report describes current regulations used by Army, Air Force, and Navy medical personnel to return active duty warfighters who are affected by a heat illness back to full duty. In addition, a description of the profile system used in evaluating the different body systems, and how it relates to military return to duty, are detailed. Current guidelines require clinical resolution, as well as a profile that that protects a soldier through repeated heat cycles, prior to returning to full duty. The Israeli Defense Force, in contrast, incorporates a heat tolerance test to return to duty those soldiers afflicted by heat stroke, which is briefly described. Future directions for U.S. military medicine are discussed.

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Assuman Nuhu and Matthew Kutz

Epidemiological research on soccer injuries during African soccer competition is sparse. This study was conducted among 12 teams in the Council of East and Central Africa Football Association (CECAFA) challenge cup tournament. Fifty-seven injuries were reported (2.7 injuries per match), or 82.25 injuries per 1,000 match hours. The ankle was most often injured (23%). The majority (81%) of injuries occurred as a result of traumatic contact, with the most injuries occurring in the last 30 min of the match. A majority (84%) of athletes who sustained injuries continued to play. African medical personnel should be trained to handle the unique constraints and variety of injuries sustained during soccer competition.

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Charles R. Thompson

The incidence of concussions and potential for long-term health effects has captured the attention of the media, general public, medical professionals, parents, and obviously the athletes themselves. Concussions have been blamed for a variety of mental and physical health issues. The athletic trainer is at the forefront of the concussion management team, as they are typically on the scene when the concussion occurs and are often the first medical personnel to evaluate and, hopefully, remove the athlete from activity. There has been controversy of late regarding the influence of coaches in the care of concussed athletes. Therefore, a move to the “medical model” of sports medicine management can go a long way in resolving conflict of interest issues regarding the care of concussed athletes. A comprehensive concussion team and protocol are also essential to providing the highest level of care. This article takes a closer look at concussion management in the collegiate arena, with a particular focus on Princeton University.

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Theresa Miyashita

Sport-related concussions have recently been at the forefront of mainstream media, where the attention is now turning to the safety of our young athletes. With the recent rise of concussion lawsuits, coaches need to know concussion basics to protect their athletes and themselves. What we know about concussions has evolved, and it is critical that coaches understand these changes and how they impact the management of their teams’ injuries. In the absence of medical personnel, coaches are responsible for removing athletes from play if they have potentially sustained a concussion. Coaches must therefore understand the different mechanisms of injury, signs and symptoms, and the protocol to follow if they believe their athlete has sustained a concussion.

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Riana R. Pryor, Summer Runestad, Bethany A. Chong Gum, Nathan J. Fuller, Moon Kang and Jennifer J. Beck

While the number of schools with ATs has risen over time, 3 a large portion of student-athletes remain without appropriate medical personnel providing medical care on a daily basis. 4 This is in opposition to national sport safety organization recommendations such as those from the National Athletic

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Emma S. Ariyo

challenges regarding reintegration into society. Finally, the issue of concussions in the NFL and NHL is receiving public attention and concern, with players, coaches, trainers, medical personnel, and executives recently recognizing the dangers and costs incurred throughout an athlete’s professional career

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Christina Yannetsos, Mario C. Pacheco and Danny G. Thomas

the 2009 Lystedt law led to a greater than 100% increase in the overall rate of documented concussions in high school athletes. 13 Yet, due to underreporting of concussions by athletes and a lack of sideline medical personnel in most sports, coaches are key to recognizing athletes with symptoms of

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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

complaints they experienced that were related to salsa dance. All responses were recorded in a self-reported fashion and without diagnosis by medical personnel. The definition of time-loss injury used in this study was any injury sustained during a salsa dance session that resulted in ≥1 day lost from being