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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

thrown balls is < 0.5 kg) and the minimum loads during bench press throws are approximately 15–20 kg. In an attempt to address the issues surrounding much of the research, several researchers have proposed that the assessment of upper body power using medicine ball throws may provide a more functional

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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist

.3) 42.5 (5.2) 0.63 (0.12) Most likely ↑ 1.12 (0.12) Most likely ↑ 0.70 (0.14) Most likely ↑ Change of direction, s 20.31 (1.22) 20.44 (1.30) 19.68 (0.84) 0.10 (0.13) Likely trivial −0.46 (0.14) Most likely ↓ −0.60 (0.13) Most likely ↓ Medicine-ball throw, m 6.3 (0.9) 7.1 (0.8) 8.1 (0.8) 1.00 (0.14) Most

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Filip Sabol, Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic

, there is a scarcity of studies that have examined the effects of caffeine ingestion while using both upper- and lower-body exercise tests in the same group of participants. In our recent study, 3 we reported that caffeine ingestion in the dose of 6 mg·kg −1 enhances the medicine ball throw distance (a

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

conducted in a set order: push-up test, countermovement jump test, and a medicine ball throw. The recovery time between each test was 5 min. Prior to testing, all players performed a dynamic warm-up and stretching regime consisting of three repetitions of each test. The load imposed by the battery of tests

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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha Louise Moss and Craig Twist

testing procedures, which were conducted by the same researcher. During each session, players were divided into 2 groups, with group 1 performing the sprint tests and countermovement jump first and group 2 completing the change of direction test and medicine ball throw. The groups then swapped and came

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Mehrez Hammami, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Nawel Gaamouri, Gaith Aloui, Roy J. Shephard and Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly

of back extensor strength (3 trials separated by at least 2 min of recovery) and medicine ball throw tests (2 trials separated by 5 min of recovery), with the best attempts used for further analyses. On the fourth day, the stork and Y balance tests were completed. 30-m Sprint Performance Players

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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist

the left and right sides, 2 medicine ball throws, 2 countermovement jumps (CMJs), and a rugby-specific prone Yo-Yo IR1. 14 Full details of the testing battery can be found in the Supplementary Material (available online). All testing took place at each club’s own training ground at the same time of

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Fang-Yu Hsu, Kuei-Lan Tsai, Chia-Lun Lee, Wen-Dien Chang and Nai-Jen Chang

, FR, or VFR Flexibility Lower-limb power Upper-limb power Agility Specific skill Sit and reach, cm Board jump, cm Medicine ball throw, cm Edgren Side Step Test, m Ball speed, km/h DS + SS  Pre 26.13 (10.40) 200.67 (32.98) 612.00 (144.38) 19.61 (1.95) 60.16 (6.52)  Post 30.11 (10.00)* 209.65 (36

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Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Matheus Alves Souza, Daniel Souza Moraes, Fabrício Godoy Petry, Eduardo Soldera Oliveira, Sandro Viana Ramires and Pedro C. Hallal


Physical fitness is strongly associated with several positive health indicators among adolescents. However, its association with body mass index status is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore the association between overweight/obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents.


The design consisted of a cross-sectional study comprising 519 Brazilian students age 7 to 15 years. BMI status was assessed according to sex- and age-specific growth charts. Physical fitness was assessed using 8 tests: sit-and-reach, stationary long jump, 1-minute curl-up, modified pull-up, medicine-ball throw, 9-minute run, 20-m run, and 4-m shuttle-run.


Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24% and 12%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls in all tests, except flexibility. Normal weight students performed better than overweight and obese students in all tests, except the sit-and-reach and the medicine-ball throw. Cardiorespiratory fitness had the strongest association with BMI status. The prevalence of obese subjects classified as “most fit” was less than 10%.


Higher values of body mass index were associated with declines in physical fitness, independent of age. The majority of obese children and adolescents and almost a half of those overweight were classified in the third tertile of physical fitness (least fit).

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Waldemar Skowroński, Michael Horvat, Joe Nocera, Glenn Roswal and Ron Croce

The Eurofit Special Test is a battery of motor fitness tests resulting from a 10-year project of the Committee of Experts for Sports Research and is comprised of strength, speed, flexibility, and balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Eurofit Special was able to distinguish variations in functioning among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Significant differences were found in long jump flexibility 25-m dash, medicine ball throw, balance walk, sit ups in 30-s. Analyses demonstrated that the Eurofit Special was able to discriminate performance levels by gender, age, and level of intellectual disability (mild: 177 female, 368 male; moderate: 359 female, 476 male; severe: 92 female, 111 male).