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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

thrown balls is < 0.5 kg) and the minimum loads during bench press throws are approximately 15–20 kg. In an attempt to address the issues surrounding much of the research, several researchers have proposed that the assessment of upper body power using medicine ball throws may provide a more functional

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Bhanu Sharma and Brian W. Timmons

terms related to (1) exercise, (2) pediatrics, and (3) traumatic brain injury and/or concussion. Based on a title and abstract screen, articles on the topic of pediatric and/or adolescent brain injury (including concussion) and exercise medicine (including but not limited to characterization of exercise

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Ivan Waddington

The development of sports medicine can be understood in terms of a conjuncture involving processes of medicalization and the increasing competitiveness of modern sport. It is also suggested that the growing involvement of sports physicians in the search for championship-winning performances has led them not only to develop improved mechanical and psychological techniques, but also to play an active part in the development of performance-enhancing drugs and techniques. The argument is developed via three case studies: the relationship between sports medicine and drug use in some of the former communist countries of Eastern Europe; the early development of anabolic steroids in the United States; and the development of “blood doping.”

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

. American College of Sports Medicine . ACSM’s Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription . 6th ed . Baltimore, MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2014 . 12. Matthews CE , Keadle SK , Troiano RP , et al . Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Luiz C. Pereira, Danilo R.P. Silva, Leandro dos Santos, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Denilson C. Teixeira, Edilson S. Cyrino and Dartagnan P. Guedes

middle-income countries, are warranted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to clarify the independent association between sedentary behavior and physical activity with multiple chronic diseases and medicine intake among Brazilian older adults. Methods Design, Participants, and Procedures This was a

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Kimberly S. Peer

Sports medicine professionals are facing new dilemmas in light of the changing dynamics of sport as an enterprise. These changes have considerable ethical implications as sports medicine team members are placed in challenging ethical decision-making situations that often create values tensions. These values conflicts have the potential to threaten and degrade the trust established through the mutual expectations inherent in the social contract between the health care providers and society. According to Starr,1 the social contract is defined as the relationship between medicine and society that is renegotiated in response to the complexities of modern medicine and contemporary society. Anchored in expectations of both society and the medical professions, this tacit contract provides a strong compass for professional practice as it exemplifies the powerful role and examines the deep responsibilities held by health care providers in our society. Although governed by professional boards and organizational codes of ethics, sports medicine professionals are challenged by the conflicts of interest between paternalistic care for the athlete and autonomous decisions often influenced by stakeholders other than the athletes themselves. Understanding how the construct of sport has impacted sports health care will better prepare sports medicine professionals for the ethical challenges they will likely face and, more importantly, facilitate awareness and change of the critical importance of upholding the integrity of the professional social contract.

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Douglas R. Keskula

Returning an athlete to functional activity is the primary goal of the sports medicine practitioner. Eccentric exercise may be used throughout the rehabilitation program to improve muscle performance and restore normal function. The selection and progression of eccentric exercise are contingent on treatment goals and the individual's tolerance to activity. Basic concepts of eccentric muscle performance are discussed, and general treatment guidelines with an emphasis on specificity and intensity are presented, to enable the clinician to organize and implement relevant, prudent eccentric exercise within the restrictions of the clinical setting. The use of eccentric exercise in the management of tendinitis is briefly discussed.

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Eugene A. Park, MooSong Kim and Marita K. Cardinal

Background:

This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002.

Methods:

Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions’ websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%).

Results:

The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education–related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions.

Conclusions:

More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.

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Alan McCall, Maurizio Fanchini and Aaron J. Coutts

In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to “predict” outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine’s modern-day equivalent of the “Quest for the Holy Grail.” The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.

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William R. Whitehill