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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik

negative finding, yet they later reported a decrease of ethnic identity, which, according to them, might have led to higher perceptions of unity ( Heere et al., 2016 ). Not only is the evaluation of social impact of mega sport events complicated, but also the exercise itself can perhaps be questioned, as

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Anahit Armenakyan, Norm O’Reilly, Louise Heslop, John Nadeau, and Irene R. R. Lu

The hosting of a mega–sport event (MSE) has a number of implications for a host country, some positive and some negative. This research explores the influence of the on-field performance of the host country’s national team (NT), in this case for the Olympic Games, on the decision to bid for and potentially host such an MSE. Previous studies have normally focused on residents and international tourists who attend the event, thereby not considering the views of (i) nonresident communities of the host country and (ii) international and domestic spectators. This research responds by investigating the impact of individual associations with the (Olympic) NT through examining the expectations for and perceived performance of the NT on behavioral attitudes of domestic (Canadian) and foreign (American) residents toward the NT itself, the MSE, and the host country, around the 2010 Winter Vancouver Olympic Games.

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Ari Kim, Moonhoon Choi, and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

Residents’ support for hosting the Olympic Games is crucial for a bid to succeed in the Olympic host-city selection process. Because of the vital role of the media in framing public perceptions of Olympic bids, the purpose of this study was to examine media coverage of hosting the Olympic Games during the Olympic host-city bid process. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on newspaper articles about Pyeongchang, Korea. Pyeongchang was a candidate city for 3 consecutive bids for the Winter Olympic Games, and it finally won its latest bid to host the 2018 Games. Six hundred Korean newspaper articles were collected for analysis. The results indicated that positive, nationwide discussions of hosting the Olympic Games were presented during the successful bid. Infrastructure legacy was mentioned frequently and dominantly for both successful and unsuccessful bid periods, whereas the presence of sport-development and sociocultural-legacy themes increased in the latest, successful, bid. In addition, extensive coverage related to celebrity endorsement was found during the successful bid.

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NaRi Shin and Jon Welty Peachey

In this study, the authors sought to understand the influence of the Olympic Games on a host community’s globalization and development using world-systems theory and theories of globalization (i.e., glocalization and grobalization). The host community for the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics (Daegwallyeong-myeon in South Korea) was the focus of this investigation. Using a global ethnographic approach, the authors collected diverse data through interviews, observations, archival and media documents, and field notes. Findings identified five key themes: (a) perception of underdevelopment, (b) the Organizing Committee’s institutional management of the global standard, (c) the Organizing Committee’s role as a negotiator between the global standard and the locality, (d) resident perspectives on global standards and regulations, and (e) aspirations to globalize Daegwallyeong-myeon. Through this study, the authors advance the use of world-systems theory and expand the concept of grobalization in the context of sport megaevent management by discussing global–local configurations and local agents’ desires to transform the community through Olympic-driven development and globalization.

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Nola Agha and Marijke Taks

The role of residents in the calculation of economic impact remains a point of contention. It is unclear if changes in resident spending caused by an event contribute positively, negatively, or not at all. Building on previous theory, we develop a comprehensive model that explains all 72 possible behaviors of residents based on changes in (a) spending, (b) multiplier, (c) timing of expenditures, and (d) geographic location of spending. Applying the model to Super Bowl 50 indicates that few residents were affected and positive and negative effects were relatively equivalent; thus, their overall impact is negligible. This leaves practitioners the option to engage in the challenging process of gathering data on all four variables on all residents or to revert back to the old model of entirely excluding residents from economic impact. From a theoretical perspective, there is a pressing need to properly conceptualize the time variable in economic impact studies.

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Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner, and Joerg Koenigstorfer

The so-called intangible effects of sport events on the host population have gained attention from researchers and practitioners, because empirical assessments of tangible benefits have mainly suggested that the hosting of the events—in particular mega-sport events—is a poor financial investment

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Bob Heere, Henry Wear, Adam Jones, Tim Breitbarth, Xiaoyan Xing, Juan Luis Paramio Salcines, Masayuki Yoshida, and Inge Derom

the event through advertising might be crucial in allowing the event to affect the destination image. Mega sport events attract so much media attention in the months or even years leading up to the event that little activation of awareness of the event may be required; thus, it is unclear whether the

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Eddie T.C. Lam

, and influence residents’ perceptions of hosting a major non-mega-sport event. The authors assert that future research should use key performance indicators to measure local governance of a sport-tourism strategy and to hold the city council accountable. Part V, “Sport Governance and Business

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

-making relative to the renewal of existing sponsorships. Context This study’s context features a unique, highly visible set of marketing partnerships: global sponsorships of sport organizations that host mega sport events (MSEs; e.g., Armenakyan, O’Reilly, Heslop, Nadeau, & Lu, 2016 ). As a global strategic

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Henk Erik Meier, Jörg Hagenah, and Malte Jetzke

and to reallocate budgets. Not surprisingly, broadcasters are less interested in purchasing rights for niche sports with limited audience appeal. Rather, they prefer major sports, which can bring about so-called network externalities. Audiences value major sports and mega sport events because their