Hosting sport megaevents, particularly the Olympic Games, remains a popular developmental tactic for governments due to the Games’ prospective contributions to national and local development driven by the influx of visitors and infrastructure investment ( Roche, 2000 ). The International Olympic
Xiaoyan Xing and Laurence Chalip
Sport mega-event organizing committees have three uniquely challenging characteristics: They grow rapidly; they are temporary; they are accountable for event symbolisms. Effects of these characteristics are examined via participant observation and in-depth interviews with twelve lower-level employees of the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG) two years before the Beijing Olympics. Four themes about their working lives were identified: The daily work is mundane; BOCOG is bureaucratic; privilege has its privileges; my immediate working environment nurtures me. The mega-event context was also important; workers described it using: The Olympics are great and grand; the Olympics are valuable for China; the Olympics illustrate the challenges that China faces in the 21st century; BOCOG is uniquely high profile; BOCOG helps us to understand Chinese society. Employees used four themes to describe the coping strategies they applied to manage the challenges of working for the organizing committee: I have to confront or adjust; my work at BOCOG allows me to develop myself; working at BOCOG represents a passionate life with idealism; I get to be part of history. Findings suggest that social support, the symbolic significance of the event, and learning through event work mitigate the stresses of working to host a mega-event. Future work should examine the workers’ lives longitudinally over the lifespan of an organizing committee to delineate the dynamics of meanings and experiences in mega-event work.
John Nadeau, Norm O’Reilly, Erdinc Cakmak, Louise Heslop, and Sonja Verwey
In this paper, the authors address a literature gap with regard to sponsorship outcomes of mega-events and their host countries. This paper is about research that investigates the interrelatedness of three important images—host country, mega-event, and sponsor images—from the perspective of a cameo appearance building on the sponsorship and brand placement literature. It is based on the premise that the host city makes a cameo appearance during a mega-event for sport tourists while the event itself makes a cameo appearance for residents of the host country. The results indicate that mega-events can have a transitory influence, and that cameo effects exist, but that the patterns of relationships are different for sport tourists and residents.
Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue, and Joshua I. Newman
to evoke the definition put forward by Maurice Roche ( 2000 ) in the opening pages of his influential Mega-Events and Modernity : Mega-events are large-scale cultural (including commercial and sporting) events which have a dramatic character, mass popular appeal and international significance. They
By Heather Sykes. Taylor & Francis, 2017, Abingdon, Oxon and New York, NY. In their book, The sexual and gender politics of sport mega-events: Roving colonialism , Heather Sykes and contributors Manal Hamzeh and Salima Bhimani document and analyze activism focused on neo-liberal and securitized
Janine Coates and Philip B. Vickerman
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11–16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.
Claudio M. Rocha
, 2003 ). As private funding has proven to be a fallacy for most hosts all around the world ( Solberg & Preuss, 2007 ), residents’ support has worked as a seal of approval for public money investment in sport mega-events like the OG. Local residents’ support creates legitimacy for government investment
Eilidh H.R. Macrae
Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) provide the primary opportunities for organized community sport in the UK and thus hold the responsibility for delivering on mega-event sports participation legacies. This study presents findings from open-ended questionnaires and interviews conducted in two phases (Phase 1—Spring, 2013; Phase 2—Summer, 2015) with representatives from a sample (n = 39) of VSCs to understand their ability to deliver on the participation legacy goals of London 2012 and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Thematic analysis of the data outlined three themes where support for VSCs should be placed when planning future mega-events: building VSC capacity, retaining members in the long-term, and promoting general visibility of the VSC throughout the event. Bid teams who hope to use mega-events as catalysts for sports participation increases should direct funding and guidance toward VSCs to ensure they have the tools, knowledge, and capacity to deliver on national sports participation ambitions.
Michael Silk and Andrew Manley
Within this paper we “hold together” an amalgam of intensive and extensive glocalization and the simultaneous reinscription of the importance of the global growth rationalities to aid understandings of contemporary Pacific Asian sporting spectacles. Through a series of four vignettes, we point to the place of sport within intense transformations within urban conglomerations in Pacific Asia. In so doing, we point to three central, and interrelated, problematics that appear endemic to Pacific Asian mega-events; raising questions over whose histories, whose representations and which peoples matter to, and for, the Pacific Asian sporting spectacle. Conclusions are centered on attuning our scholarly directions toward the structural inequalities embedded within these processes and transformations.
Inge Derom and Donna Lee
The City of Vancouver, British Columbia strategically designed and implemented a municipal health promotion policy—the Vancouver Active Communities policy—to leverage the 2010 Olympic Games. The goal of the policy was to increase physical activity participation among Vancouver residents by 2010.
In this paper, we conduct a critical policy analysis of health promotion policy documents that were available on the City of Vancouver’s website.
We elaborate on the background to the policy and more specifically we examine its content: the problem definition, policy goals, and policy instruments.
Our analysis showed inconsistency within the policy, particularly because the implemented policy instruments were not designed to address needs of the identified target populations in need of health promotion efforts, which were used to legitimize the approval of funding for the policy. Inconsistency across municipal policies, especially in terms of promoting physical activity among low-income residents, was also problematic.
If other municipalities seek to leverage health promotion funding related to hosting sport mega-events, the programs and services should be designed to benefit the target populations used to justify the funding. Furthermore, municipalities should clearly indicate how funding will be maintained beyond the life expectancy of the mega-event.