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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong, and Wai Nam William Tsang

The high prevalence (32.9%) of sleep disorders among older adults ( Liu & Liu, 2005 ) may be associated with impaired secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland ( Garfinkel, Laudon, Nof, & Zisapel, 1995 ). Melatonin’s main function is to coordinate circadian rhythms. Although other dietary

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Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau, and Alexander J. Koch

, metabolism, inflammation, and immunity, which can ultimately negatively affect athletic performance. 2 , 3 Exercise is generally thought to be a nonpharmacological behavior that promotes sleep, 4 possibly via hyperthermia. 5 Research regarding exercise’s effect on melatonin release is limited. 6 , 7

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke, and Jeni Pearce

previously outlined. Zeitgebers are the rhythmic cues in the environment that synchronize the internal body clock to the external environment ( Choy & Salbu, 2011 ). Although the most powerful zeitgeber is light, there is some evidence of beneficial effects of nutritional interventions, such as melatonin

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi, and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

, & Carrier, 2011 ). From a hormonal point of view, aging is associated with a gradual decrease in secretion of melatonin (MEL, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). In fact, MEL is a key hormone produced nocturnally by the pineal gland in a process driven by the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei ( Sack

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Trent Stellingwerff, David B. Pyne, and Louise M. Burke

Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16–31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.

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Adam Field, Liam D. Harper, Bryna C.R. Chrismas, Peter M. Fowler, Alan McCall, Darren J. Paul, Karim Chamari, and Lee Taylor

, which are as follows: (1) sleep promotion via hygiene, (2) sleep promotion via Melatonin and/or Circadin , (3) sleep promotion via medication, (4) strategies to enhance immunity/prevent illness, (5) cold water therapy, (6) hot therapy, (7) massage, (8) active recovery, (9) compression garments, (10

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Peter M. Fowler, Wade Knez, Heidi R. Thornton, Charli Sargent, Amy E. Mendham, Stephen Crowcroft, Joanna Miller, Shona Halson, and Rob Duffield

within 24 to 48 hours after long-haul travel for elite team-sport athletes, practical and effective interventions are required to aid preparation upon arrival. Several recent reviews have recommended the use of bright light and/or melatonin ingestion at targeted times pre, during, and posttravel to

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter, and Shona L. Halson

regulation of sleep promotion (due to an inhibition of the secretion of melatonin); however, stimulating and interactive social media platforms causing emotional arousal might also explain this phenomenon. 27 Accordingly, volitional behavior, that is, self-regulation, is one of the underlying mechanisms

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Billy C.L. So, Sze C. Kwok, and Paul H. Lee

mechanisms that underlie these effects and if the beneficial effects observed can be maintained over time. In the general population, several mechanism models (eg, the thermoregulatory hypothesis, 25 body restoration theory, 26 and melatonin-mediated mechanism 27 ) have been proposed. The recent research

Open access

Michael W. Kirkwood, David R. Howell, Brian L. Brooks, Julie C. Wilson, and William P. Meehan III

to higher risk activities such as contact sports. More generally, recommendations should avoid reinforcing negative expectations and beliefs. • No vitamins, supplements, or medications have been shown to substantially improve concussion recovery. 46 , 48 Melatonin is commonly suggested to improve