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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

The high prevalence (32.9%) of sleep disorders among older adults ( Liu & Liu, 2005 ) may be associated with impaired secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland ( Garfinkel, Laudon, Nof, & Zisapel, 1995 ). Melatonin’s main function is to coordinate circadian rhythms. Although other dietary

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Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau and Alexander J. Koch

, metabolism, inflammation, and immunity, which can ultimately negatively affect athletic performance. 2 , 3 Exercise is generally thought to be a nonpharmacological behavior that promotes sleep, 4 possibly via hyperthermia. 5 Research regarding exercise’s effect on melatonin release is limited. 6 , 7

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

previously outlined. Zeitgebers are the rhythmic cues in the environment that synchronize the internal body clock to the external environment ( Choy & Salbu, 2011 ). Although the most powerful zeitgeber is light, there is some evidence of beneficial effects of nutritional interventions, such as melatonin

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

, & Carrier, 2011 ). From a hormonal point of view, aging is associated with a gradual decrease in secretion of melatonin (MEL, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). In fact, MEL is a key hormone produced nocturnally by the pineal gland in a process driven by the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei ( Sack

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Trent Stellingwerff, David B. Pyne and Louise M. Burke

Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16–31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

regulation of sleep promotion (due to an inhibition of the secretion of melatonin); however, stimulating and interactive social media platforms causing emotional arousal might also explain this phenomenon. 27 Accordingly, volitional behavior, that is, self-regulation, is one of the underlying mechanisms

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Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page and Matt Greig

postulated that fine motor control movements are often enhanced in the morning, 11 whereas activities requiring gross muscular movements, including strength and power exercises, typically exhibit peak performance in the early evening 9 when core temperature is high and melatonin levels are low. 12

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

consequently delaying their sleep phase. Sleep later than the usual time due to sports practice can cause a delay in melatonin, hormone secretion, 26 and delay the fall (nadir) of the central temperature. These changes in circadian schedule may occur due to light exposure at night and the increase in

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

strength assessment ( Herrlinger et al., 2015 ). Finally, 100 mg/day of melatonin provided to athletes (aged 19.8 ± 0.52 years) before bed during 4 weeks of a RT program comprised of three sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 75% 1RM increased plasma oxygen radical absorption capacity, reduced plasma lipid

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

in October 2016, and the monitoring was carried out during the “in-season period,” specifically in March 2017. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years and being a professional volleyball player with at least 8 years of experience. Exclusion criteria were tobacco use, use of melatonin and