the 2 major phases of the menstrual cycle as follows: the follicular phase, focused on maturing a reproductive cell, and the luteal phase, focused on its regression. Thus, muscle damage response to exercise could vary accordingly. During the early follicular phase (EFP), both estrogen and progesterone
Nuria Romero-Parra, Victor Manuel Alfaro-Magallanes, Beatriz Rael, Rocío Cupeiro, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Pedro J. Benito, Ana B. Peinado and on behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group
Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway
state and replacing lost fluids on cessation of exercise is recommended; however, most of the research on this field has been done in males due to the uncertainty of including females in relation to menstrual cycle phase effects on fluid balance. Many factors affect fluid balance and rehydration, such
M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen and A.C. Hackney
Female reproductive hormones go through large cyclical changes in eumenorrheic women over the course of their menstrual cycle (MC). Research shows that the female sex steroid hormones (SSH; estrogens and progestin) have physiologic roles beyond reproductive function, such as affecting metabolism
Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale
Alterations to the female reproductive-axis influence health and athletic performance. 1 – 3 Between menarche and menopause, non-hormonal-contraceptive (non-HC) users typically have a monthly menstrual cycle, with a cyclical rise and fall in sex hormone concentrations. 4 Primary dysmenorrhea
Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen and Øyvind Sandbakk
periods in an individual rhythm called the menstrual cycle (MC). 1 , 2 Hormonal fluctuations during the MC have been reported to particularly influence ventilation, thermoregulation, and substrate metabolism, 3 – 6 as well as causing negative side effects such as pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, anemia
David R. Bell, Megan P. Myrick, J. Troy Blackburn, Sandra J. Shultz, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Darin A. Padua
Preventing noncontact ACL injuries has been a major focus of athletic trainers and researchers. One factor that may influence female noncontact ACL injury is the fluctuating concentrations of hormones in the body.
To determine whether muscle properties change across the menstrual cycle.
Repeated measures. Testing was performed within 3 d after the onset of menses and ovulation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine changes in variables across the menstrual cycle, and Pearson correlations were used to determine relationships between variables.
8 women with normal menstrual cycles.
Main Outcome Measures:
Active hamstring stiffness and hamstring extensibility.
Hamstring extensibility (P = .003) increased at the ovulation testing session but hamstring muscle stiffness (P = .66) did not.
The results indicate that hamstring muscle stiffness did not change across the menstrual cycle and hamstring extensibility increased at ovulation, when estrogen concentration increases.
Rebecca T. McLay, Christine D. Thomson, Sheila M. Williams and Nancy J. Rehrer
This study compared 3 d of carbohydrate loading (CHOL; 8.4 g·kg−1·d−1 carbohydrate) in female eumenorrheic athletes with 3 d of an isoenergetic normal diet (NORM; 5.2 g·kg−1·d−1 carbohydrate) and examined the effect of menstrual-cycle phase on performance, muscle-glycogen concentration [glyc], and substrate utilization. Nine moderately trained eumenorrheic women cycled in an intermittent protocol varying in intensity from 45% to 75% VO2max for 75 min, followed by a 16-km time trial at the midfollicular (MF) and midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle on NORM and CHOL. Time-trial performance was not affected by diet (CHOL 26.10 ± 1.04 min, NORM 26.16 ± 1.35 min; P = 0.494) or menstrual-cycle phase (MF 26.05 ± 1.10 min, ML 26.23 ± 1.33 min; P = 0.370). Resting [glyc] was lowest in the MF phase after NORM (575 ± 145 mmol·kg−1·dw−1), compared with the MF phase after CHOL (728 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) and the ML phase after CHOL and NORM (756 and 771 mmol·kg−1·dw−1, respectively). No effect of phase on substrate utilization during exercise was observed. These data support previous observations of greater resting [glyc] in the ML than the MF phase of the menstrual cycle and suggest that lower glycogen storage in the MF phase can be overcome by carbohydrate loading.
Xiaoyue Hu, Jingxian Li and Lin Wang
level and avoiding lower limb injuries ( Han, Anson, Waddington, Adams, & Liu, 2015 ; Jorgensen, Laessoe, Hendriksen, Nielsen, & Aagaard, 2013 ). Previous studies have reported that the specific hormonal influence of various menstrual cycle phases increases the incidence of sports injuries in females
Anthony C. Hackney, Mary Ann McCracken-Compton and Barbara Ainsworth
This study examined substrate metabolism responses of eumenorrheic women to different intensities of submaximai exercise at the midfollicular (MF) and the midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine women performed a 30-min treadmill run in which the exercise intensity was made more difficult every 10 min (35%, 60%, and 75%). Carbohydrate (CHO) utilization and oxidation rates for the 35% and 60% intensities during the ML session were significantly lower than during the comparable intensities in the MF. Conversely, lipid utilization and oxidation were significantly greater during the 35% and 60% ML session than in the MF session. At 75%, however, the ML and MF CHO-lipid utilization and oxidation rates were not significantly different from one another. Thus, the phase of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women does influence metabolic substrate usage during low- to moderate-intensity submaximai exercise, probably due to changes in the endogenous levels of the female sex hormones.
Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman
, & Apel, 2004 ), has focused attention on the sex-specific differences in patterns of hormonal secretion as a potential factor in injury risk. Within this scope, prominent sex hormones (e.g., estrogen and progesterone) have received much attention, but other menstrual cycle–related hormones have been