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Nuria Romero-Parra, Victor Manuel Alfaro-Magallanes, Beatriz Rael, Rocío Cupeiro, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Pedro J. Benito, Ana B. Peinado, and on behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group

the 2 major phases of the menstrual cycle as follows: the follicular phase, focused on maturing a reproductive cell, and the luteal phase, focused on its regression. Thus, muscle damage response to exercise could vary accordingly. During the early follicular phase (EFP), both estrogen and progesterone

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Petra V. Kolić, David T. Sims, Kirsty Hicks, Laura Thomas, and Christopher I. Morse

The menstrual cycle is a natural process in women’s reproductive years that represents a highly individual and personal experience ( Brantelid, Nilvér, & Alehagen, 2014 ). The start of every menstrual cycle is marked by the period, also known as menstruation, which can lead to symptoms, such as

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Francesco Campa, Matteo Levi Micheli, Matilde Pompignoli, Roberto Cannataro, Massimo Gulisano, Stefania Toselli, Gianpiero Greco, and Giuseppe Coratella

The menstrual cycle is a physiological process that prepares women for pregnancy, and it is controlled by sex hormones that affect the sexual organs, as well as the entire body. 1 In eumenorrheic women, the menstrual cycle typically lasts between 21 and 35 days with an average of 28 days 2 and

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

state and replacing lost fluids on cessation of exercise is recommended; however, most of the research on this field has been done in males due to the uncertainty of including females in relation to menstrual cycle phase effects on fluid balance. Many factors affect fluid balance and rehydration, such

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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen, and A.C. Hackney

Female reproductive hormones go through large cyclical changes in eumenorrheic women over the course of their menstrual cycle (MC). Research shows that the female sex steroid hormones (SSH; estrogens and progestin) have physiologic roles beyond reproductive function, such as affecting metabolism

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Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper, and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Alterations to the female reproductive-axis influence health and athletic performance. 1 – 3 Between menarche and menopause, non-hormonal-contraceptive (non-HC) users typically have a monthly menstrual cycle, with a cyclical rise and fall in sex hormone concentrations. 4 Primary dysmenorrhea

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Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen, and Øyvind Sandbakk

periods in an individual rhythm called the menstrual cycle (MC). 1 , 2 Hormonal fluctuations during the MC have been reported to particularly influence ventilation, thermoregulation, and substrate metabolism, 3 – 6 as well as causing negative side effects such as pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, anemia

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Xiaoyue Hu, Jingxian Li, and Lin Wang

level and avoiding lower limb injuries ( Han, Anson, Waddington, Adams, & Liu, 2015 ; Jorgensen, Laessoe, Hendriksen, Nielsen, & Aagaard, 2013 ). Previous studies have reported that the specific hormonal influence of various menstrual cycle phases increases the incidence of sports injuries in females

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David R. Bell, Megan P. Myrick, J. Troy Blackburn, Sandra J. Shultz, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, and Darin A. Padua

Context:

Preventing noncontact ACL injuries has been a major focus of athletic trainers and researchers. One factor that may influence female noncontact ACL injury is the fluctuating concentrations of hormones in the body.

Objective:

To determine whether muscle properties change across the menstrual cycle.

Design:

Repeated measures. Testing was performed within 3 d after the onset of menses and ovulation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine changes in variables across the menstrual cycle, and Pearson correlations were used to determine relationships between variables.

Participants:

8 women with normal menstrual cycles.

Main Outcome Measures:

Active hamstring stiffness and hamstring extensibility.

Results:

Hamstring extensibility (P = .003) increased at the ovulation testing session but hamstring muscle stiffness (P = .66) did not.

Conclusions:

The results indicate that hamstring muscle stiffness did not change across the menstrual cycle and hamstring extensibility increased at ovulation, when estrogen concentration increases.

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Rebecca T. McLay, Christine D. Thomson, Sheila M. Williams, and Nancy J. Rehrer

This study compared 3 d of carbohydrate loading (CHOL; 8.4 g·kg−1·d−1 carbohydrate) in female eumenorrheic athletes with 3 d of an isoenergetic normal diet (NORM; 5.2 g·kg−1·d−1 carbohydrate) and examined the effect of menstrual-cycle phase on performance, muscle-glycogen concentration [glyc], and substrate utilization. Nine moderately trained eumenorrheic women cycled in an intermittent protocol varying in intensity from 45% to 75% VO2max for 75 min, followed by a 16-km time trial at the midfollicular (MF) and midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle on NORM and CHOL. Time-trial performance was not affected by diet (CHOL 26.10 ± 1.04 min, NORM 26.16 ± 1.35 min; P = 0.494) or menstrual-cycle phase (MF 26.05 ± 1.10 min, ML 26.23 ± 1.33 min; P = 0.370). Resting [glyc] was lowest in the MF phase after NORM (575 ± 145 mmol·kg−1·dw−1), compared with the MF phase after CHOL (728 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) and the ML phase after CHOL and NORM (756 and 771 mmol·kg−1·dw−1, respectively). No effect of phase on substrate utilization during exercise was observed. These data support previous observations of greater resting [glyc] in the ML than the MF phase of the menstrual cycle and suggest that lower glycogen storage in the MF phase can be overcome by carbohydrate loading.