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Nuria Romero-Parra, Victor Manuel Alfaro-Magallanes, Beatriz Rael, Rocío Cupeiro, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Pedro J. Benito, Ana B. Peinado, and on behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group

the 2 major phases of the menstrual cycle as follows: the follicular phase, focused on maturing a reproductive cell, and the luteal phase, focused on its regression. Thus, muscle damage response to exercise could vary accordingly. During the early follicular phase (EFP), both estrogen and progesterone

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Petra V. Kolić, David T. Sims, Kirsty Hicks, Laura Thomas, and Christopher I. Morse

The menstrual cycle is a natural process in women’s reproductive years that represents a highly individual and personal experience ( Brantelid, Nilvér, & Alehagen, 2014 ). The start of every menstrual cycle is marked by the period, also known as menstruation, which can lead to symptoms, such as

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Francesco Campa, Matteo Levi Micheli, Matilde Pompignoli, Roberto Cannataro, Massimo Gulisano, Stefania Toselli, Gianpiero Greco, and Giuseppe Coratella

The menstrual cycle is a physiological process that prepares women for pregnancy, and it is controlled by sex hormones that affect the sexual organs, as well as the entire body. 1 In eumenorrheic women, the menstrual cycle typically lasts between 21 and 35 days with an average of 28 days 2 and

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

state and replacing lost fluids on cessation of exercise is recommended; however, most of the research on this field has been done in males due to the uncertainty of including females in relation to menstrual cycle phase effects on fluid balance. Many factors affect fluid balance and rehydration, such

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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen, and A.C. Hackney

Female reproductive hormones go through large cyclical changes in eumenorrheic women over the course of their menstrual cycle (MC). Research shows that the female sex steroid hormones (SSH; estrogens and progestin) have physiologic roles beyond reproductive function, such as affecting metabolism

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Tanugatri Majumder, Virginia De Martin Topranin, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Dionne A. Noordhof

Female sex hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle (MC), and as these endogenous hormonal fluctuations have their effect beyond the reproductive system, they might also influence exercise performance. 1 A recent meta-analysis investigated the effect of the MC on exercise performance and

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Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper, and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Alterations to the female reproductive-axis influence health and athletic performance. 1 – 3 Between menarche and menopause, non-hormonal-contraceptive (non-HC) users typically have a monthly menstrual cycle, with a cyclical rise and fall in sex hormone concentrations. 4 Primary dysmenorrhea

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Xiaoyue Hu, Jingxian Li, and Lin Wang

level and avoiding lower limb injuries ( Han, Anson, Waddington, Adams, & Liu, 2015 ; Jorgensen, Laessoe, Hendriksen, Nielsen, & Aagaard, 2013 ). Previous studies have reported that the specific hormonal influence of various menstrual cycle phases increases the incidence of sports injuries in females

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Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen, and Øyvind Sandbakk

periods in an individual rhythm called the menstrual cycle (MC). 1 , 2 Hormonal fluctuations during the MC have been reported to particularly influence ventilation, thermoregulation, and substrate metabolism, 3 – 6 as well as causing negative side effects such as pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, anemia

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Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman, and Laurie Wideman

, & Apel, 2004 ), has focused attention on the sex-specific differences in patterns of hormonal secretion as a potential factor in injury risk. Within this scope, prominent sex hormones (e.g., estrogen and progesterone) have received much attention, but other menstrual cycle–related hormones have been