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Katrien De Bock, Bert O. Eijnde, Monique Ramaekers, and Peter Hespel

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and 4-week Rhodiola rosea intake on physical capacity, muscle strength, speed of limb movement, reaction time, and attention.

Methods:

PHASE I: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized study (n = 24) was performed, consisting of 2 sessions (2 days per session). Day 1: One hour after acute Rhodiola rosea intake (R, 200-mg Rhodiola rosea extract containing 3% rosavin + 1% salidroside plus 500 mg starch) or placebo (P, 700 mg starch) speed of limb movement (plate tapping test), aural and visual reaction time, and the ability to sustain attention (Fepsy Vigilance test) were assessed. Day 2: Following the same intake procedure as on day 1, maximal isometric knee-extension torque and endurance exercise capacity were tested. Following a 5-day washout period, the experimental procedure was repeated, with the treatment regimens being switched between groups (session 2). PHASE II: A double blind placebo-controlled study (n = 12) was performed. Subjects underwent sessions 3 and 4, identical to Phase I, separated by a 4-week R/P intake, during which subjects ingested 200 mg R/P per day.

Results:

PHASE I: Compared with P, acute R intake in Phase I increased 0 < -05) time to exhaustion from 16.8 ± 0.7 min to 17.2 ± 0.8 min. Accordingly, VO2peak (p < .05) and VCO2peak(p< .05) increased during R compared to P from 50.9 ± 1.8 ml • min-1 • kg−1 to 52.9 ± 2.7 ml • min-1 • kg"’ (VO2peak) and from 60.0 ± 2.3 ml • min-1 • kg-’ to 63.5 ± 2.7 ml • min-1 kg-1 (VCO2peak). Pulmonary ventilation (p = .07) tended to increase more during R than during P(P: 115.9±7.7L/min; R: 124.8 ± 7.7 L/min). All other parameters remained unchanged. PHASE II: Four-week R intake did not alter any of the variables measured.

Conclusion:

Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers. This response was not altered by prior daily 4-week Rhodiola intake.

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Adam Love, Bianca Gonzalez-Sobrino, and Matthew W. Hughey

The current study analyzed comments posted on Internet message boards devoted to U.S. college football. The investigators collected comments (N = 3,800) about instances in which a player initially announced intent to attend a particular university, but later changed his mind and signed a National Letter of Intent to attend a different university. While few posts included explicit mention of race (n = 11), commenters more frequently used forms of “color-blind” racial rhetoric that invoked racialized meanings without the overt use of racial terms (n = 346). Comments often reflected a white colonial framing of football players’ decisions, behaviors, and abilities, expressing a number of common racialized assumptions, including beliefs in the natural superiority of black physicality, doubts about black intellectual ability, and expectations about whites possessing skill, technique, and mental capacity. The presence of these racialized assumptions points to the continued salience of race in an era that is often claimed to be “color-blind” and free of racial discrimination.

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Eino Heikkinen

This paper provides a detailed description of the experimental design and chronology of the Evergreen Project, the aims of which were to profile the health and functional capacity of the elderly population of Jyväskylä, Finland, to examine changes in health and functional capacity over time, and to identify the factors related to living conditions and lifestyle that predict changes in functional capacity and health. Residents of Jyväskylä were invited to participate in a series of interviews and laboratory testing sessions. The interviews focused on (a) illnesses, the use of drugs, perceived health, symptoms, and psychosocial well-being, (b) physical and mental capacity and ADL functional capacity, (c) social togetherness and community activity, and (d) living conditions. lifestyle, and life history. The laboratory examinations assessed health status and drug use. anthropometric status, physical performance. sensory functions, perceptual-motor coordination, cognitive capacity and metacognitions. and neuropsychological functioning. A detailed breakdown of the participation and attrition rates, demographic characteristics, and normative data for each age cohort is provided.

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Veronika van der Wardt, Jennie E. Hancox, Clare Burgon, Rupinder Bajwa, Sarah Goldberg, and Rowan H. Harwood

. Participant information letters were sent ahead of the baseline assessments and interviews to give the participants sufficient time to consider the study. Mental capacity was assessed in line with the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Informed consent was signed prior to the first assessment and additionally for

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Justine Jones, Kathryn Johnston, and Joseph Baker

toughness, perseverance, and positivity, which we grouped together as “mental capacities.” These capacities have been commonly reported in the sport psychology literature (e.g.,  Gucciardi, Hanton, Gordon, Mallett, & Temby, 2015 ; Jones, 2002 ) and may positively impact athletic performance, contributing

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Adam Love, Alexander Deeb, and Lars Dzikus

university in Germany prior to coming to the United States. While writers were sometimes skeptical of Böhringer’s inexperience, his mental capacity to learn the sport did not seem to be in question. A Sports Illustrated story, for instance, quoted an NFL coach as saying, “it’s a sport with so many nuances

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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio, and Catherine M. Pirkle

) can prevent or delay progression of many NCDs, improve physical and mental capacity, and potentially increase longevity ( Vasiliadis & Bélanger, 2018 ). Thus, as a strategy to reduce NCDs, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends older adults achieve a minimum of 150 min of moderate

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik, and Nikki Barczak

chosen. When deciding whether to specialize, athletes’ motor, cognitive, and social development should be considered rather than solely chronological age ( DiFiori et al., 2014 ). For example, children should have the mental capacity to handle stress and balance the demands of sports and life, before

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Janet Lok Chun Lee and Rainbow Tin Hung Ho

sounds of birds while exercising. In general, quotes from the informants showed that using the exercise equipment while being exposed to nature lifted their moods. Previous studies have shown how nature stimulates the senses, restores mental capacities, and increases brain activity ( Krenichyn, 2006

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Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto, and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

integrated care for older people, including clinical manifestations of the declines in physical and mental capacities as strong predictors of mortality and dependence in older age. Therefore, multidimensional interventions must be conducted to manage intrinsic capacity, focusing on impaired activities