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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

), cycling ( Brownsberger et al., 2013 ; Marcora et al., 2009 ; Martin et al., 2016 ), and muscle endurance ( Pageaux et al., 2013 ). In contrast to these findings, we recently reported that time-trial performance of professional cyclists was unaffected by prior mental exertion, while under the same

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid

Purpose:

Planning tennis sessions accentuating physical development requires an understanding of training load (TL). The aims were to describe the external and internal TL of drills and analyze relationships between ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), TL, and other measures.

Methods:

Fourteen elite-level junior tennis athletes completed 259 individual drills. Six coaches helped devise classifications for all drills: recovery/defensive, open pattern, accuracy, 2-on-1 open, 2-on-1 net play, closed technical, point play, and match play. Notational analysis on stroke and error rates was performed postsession. Drill RPE and mental exertion were collected postdrill, while heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously.

Results:

Recovery/defensive, open pattern, and point play were significantly greater than closed technical drills (P < .05) for RPE and mental exertion, as were accuracy drills and match play (P < .05). Recovery/defensive, open-pattern, accuracy, and 2-on-1 open drills had higher stroke rates than match play (P < .05). Error rates of closed technical drills were significantly higher than for open pattern, 2-on-1 drills, point play, and match play (P < .05). No HR differences were observed (P > .05) between categories. Substantial correlations existed for drill RPE and TL with mental exertion (r > .62) for several categories. TL was substantially correlated with total strokes (r > .65), while HR and stroke and error rates were in slight to moderate agreement with RPE and TL (r < .51).

Conclusions:

Recovery/defensive drills are highest in physiological stress, making them ideal for maximizing physicality. Recovery/defensive drills compromised training quality, eliciting high error rates. In contrast, 2-on-1 net-play drills provided the lowest error rates, potentially appropriate for error-amelioration practice. Open-pattern drills were characterized by significantly higher stroke rates, suggesting congruence with high-repetition practice. Finally, with strong relationships between physical and mental perception, mental exertion may complement currently used monitoring strategies (TL and RPE).

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid

Purpose:

High-performance tennis environments aim to prepare athletes for competitive demands through simulated-match scenarios and drills. With a dearth of direct comparisons between training and tournament demands, the current investigation compared the perceptual and technical characteristics of training drills, simulated match play, and tournament matches.

Methods:

Data were collected from 18 high-performance junior tennis players (gender: 10 male, 8 female; age 16 ± 1.1 y) during 6 ± 2 drill-based training sessions, 5 ± 2 simulated match-play sessions, and 5 ± 3 tournament matches from each participant. Tournament matches were further distinguished by win or loss and against seeded or nonseeded opponents. Notational analysis of stroke and error rates, winners, and serves, along with rating of perceived physical exertion (RPE) and mental exertion was measured postsession.

Results:

Repeated-measures analyses of variance and effect-size analysis revealed that training sessions were significantly shorter in duration than tournament matches (P < .05, d = 1.18). RPEs during training and simulated matchplay sessions were lower than in tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.26, d = 1.05, respectively). Mental exertion in training was lower than in both simulated match play and tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.10, d = 0.86, respectively). Stroke rates during tournaments exceeded those observed in training (P < .05, d = 3.41) and simulated-match-play (P < .05, d = 1.22) sessions. Furthermore, the serve was used more during tournaments than simulated match play (P < .05, d = 4.28), while errors and winners were similar independent of setting (P > .05, d < 0.80).

Conclusions:

Training in the form of drills or simulated match play appeared to inadequately replicate tournament demands in this cohort of players. Coaches should be mindful of match demands to best prescribe sessions of relevant duration, as well as internal (RPE) and technical (stroke rate) load, to aid tournament preparation.

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid

Purpose:

To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis.

Methods:

Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE.

Results:

Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P < .01) underestimated athlete session RPE, with only moderate correlation (r = .59) demonstrated between coach and athlete. However, athlete drill RPE (P = .14; r = .71) and mental exertion (P = .44; r = .68) were comparable and substantially correlated. No significant differences in estimated stroke count were evident between athlete and coach (P = .21), athlete notational analysis (P = .06), or coach notational analysis (P = .49). Coaches estimated significantly greater unforced errors than either athletes or notational analysis (P < .01). Regression analyses found that 54.5% of variance in coach RPE was explained by intended session exertion and coach drill RPE, while drill RPE and peak HR explained 45.3% of the variance in athlete session RPE.

Conclusion:

Coaches misinterpreted session RPE but not drill RPE, while inaccurately monitoring error counts. Improved understanding of external- and internal-load monitoring may help coach–athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

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Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

, Lepers R . Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 ( 12 ): 2254 – 2264 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829b504a 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829b504a 23698244 17. Pageaux B . Perception of effort in exercise science

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

control of heart rate following a prolonged mental exertion task. We hypothesized that mental fatigue would impair swimming performance while leading to an increased perception of effort and lower values of HRV. Methods Participants Sixteen swimmers [11 boys and 5 girls, aged 15.45 (0.51) y, 7.35 (2.20) y

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

B , Marcora SM , Lepers R . Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 ( 12 ): 2254 – 2264 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829b504a 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829b504a 23698244 24. Martin K , Staiano W , Menaspà