The effect of exercise on negative affect has been examined in hundreds of studies. However, the effect of exercise on diagnosed clinical depression has received far less attention. Furthermore, poor methodological techniques predominate and results have been conflicting. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness. The chosen studies examined the effect of a chronic exercise paradigm (independent variable) on depression (dependent variable). Each study’s variables were coded: design, subjects, exercise, and dependent measure characteristics that could moderate the effect of exercise on depression. Moderator variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results from 30 studies showed an overall mean effect of −.72. Therefore, individuals who exercised were −.72 of a standard deviation less depressed than individuals who did not exercise. Moderating variables and implications for the prescription of exercise as an effective treatment for depression are discussed.
Lynette L. Craft and Daniel M. Landers
Phoenix K. H. Mo, Eddie S. K. Chong, Winnie W. S. Mak, Samuel Y. S. Wong and Joseph T. F. Lau
Physical activity is associated with various health benefits for people with mental illness (PMI). Very few studies to date have examined the factors associated with physical activity among PMI in the Chinese context. The present study examined the factors related to physical activity using the health belief model and the association between physical activity and perceived health among 443 PMI in Hong Kong using stratified sampling. Results from the structural equation modeling showed that among all the factors of the health belief model, self-efficacy was significantly related to higher levels of physical activity, and perceived barriers were significantly related to lower levels of physical activity. In addition, physical activity was significantly related to better perceived health and fewer health needs. Interventions to promote physical activity among PMI should aim to increase their self-efficacy in initiating and adhering to physical activity and to remove barriers to physical activity.
Woubeshet Ayenew, Emily C. Gathright, Ellen M. Coffey, Amber Courtney, Jodi Rogness and Andrew M. Busch
Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) have poor prognosis and shortened lifespan, partly attributable to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). 1 The higher CVD burden in people with SMI has been explained by the preponderance of CVD behavioral risk factors including low levels
Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds and Göran Kenttä
American swimmer Michael Phelps, Canadian rower Silken Laumann, and Swedish hockey player Robin Lehner all have something in common. They are accomplished elite athletes who have courageously shared their battle with mental illness to change the landscape of mental health in sport. Indeed, we are
Sarah J. Fraser, Justin J. Chapman, Wendy J. Brown, Harvey A. Whiteford and Nicola W. Burton
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior among inpatient adults with mental illness.
Participants completed a physical activity and sitting time questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Feasibility was assessed in terms of participant engagement, self-reported ease/difficulty of completing study components, extreme self-report data values and adherence to accelerometer wear time criteria. Ease/difficulty ratings were examined by level of distress.
177 inpatients were invited to the study, 101 completed the questionnaires and 36 provided valid accelerometry data. Participants found it more difficult to complete sitting time and physical activity questionnaires than to wear the accelerometer during waking hours (z = 3.787, P < .001; z = 2.824, P = .005 respectively). No significant differences were found in ease/difficulty ratings by level of distress for any of the study components. Extreme values for self-reported sitting time were identified in 27% of participants.
Inpatient adults with mental illness can engage with self-report and objective methods of measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior. They were initially less willing to participate in objective measurement, which may however be more feasible than self-report measures.
Rachel Vaccaro and Ted M. Butryn
Until recently, mental illnesses in athletes have attracted less attention and media coverage than physical injuries ( Newman, Howells, & Fletcher, 2016 ). However, the majority of published research studies suggested that mental health conditions are just as likely to occur in athletes as they are
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha
(adjusted odds ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.70–0.87), and elderly (adjusted odds ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.72–0.86) across geographical regions. 13 For those with a confirmed mental illness, there are multiple mental and physical health benefits from physical activity. 14 – 17
Sara Biondi, Cristiana Conti, Emmanouil Georgiadis and Maurizio Bertollo
anxiolytic psychopharmacological agent by his physician to moderate the anxiety and any physical symptoms. This treatment proved very helpful. Based on the Lardon and Fitzgerald model ( 2013 ), Luca moved from a normal position (characterized by occasional symptoms) to an active mental illness position
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
(BED), other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) or avoidant/ restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) ( Linville, Benton, O’Neil, & Strum, 2010 ; Wade, Keski-Rahkonen, & Hudson, 2011 ). An eating disorder (ED) is a serious mental illness often characterized by disordered thought, emotion
Jonathan Magee, Ramón Spaaij and Ruth Jeanes
This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects, we explore the role of football in relation to three components of recovery: engagement, stigma, and social isolation. The findings indicate how the projects facilitated increased client engagement, peer supports, and the transformation of self-stigma. The perception of football as an alternative setting away from the clinical environment was an important factor in this regard. Yet, the results also reveal major limitations, including the narrow, individualistic conceptualization of both recovery and stigma within the projects, the reliance on a biomedical model of mental illness, and the potentially adverse consequences of using football in mental health interventions.