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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

activity . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21 , 128 – 144 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.21.2.128 10.1123/jtpe.21.2.128 Frank , C. , Land , W.M. , Popp , C. , & Schack , T. ( 2014 ). Mental representation and mental practice: Experimental investigation on the functional links between motor

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

consequences (e.g., feel fingers touching each other and the surface of club; for more examples on the putt, see Table  1 ; for BACs on the tennis serve, see Schack & Mechsner, 2006 ). The relations among these BACs define the structure of the mental representation: While a representation without groupings of

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

an action without performing it ( Robin et al., 2007 ). During MI, the mental representation of a motor action is activated in order to permit the imagination of movements ( Frank, Land, Popp, & Schack, 2014 ). Jeannerod and Frak ( 1999 ) hypothesized an anatomical and functional correspondence

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

Bielefeld University and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Tasks and Measures Mental Representations Structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M; Schack, 2004 , 2012 ) was employed to obtain psychometric data on the structuring of players’ mental representations of team

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Mark R. Lyberger

outcomes. Although values seem to be the form of mental representation most associated with behavior, this reflects in part that people rationalize their behavior in terms of values, even when it is caused otherwise ( Morris, 2013 ). Modern educationalists are of the opinion that values are caught as well

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Amanda M. Rymal

observation increased golf putting performance, the onset of change occurred much sooner for those whom observed and physically practiced compared to those whom only observed. Mental representation structures became more functional (i.e., correct identification of steps/phases in a golf swing) across time but

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Christopher J. Nightingale, Sidney N. Mitchell and Stephen A. Butterfield

, R. , Bader , R. , & Mau-Moller , A. ( 2015 ). The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults . Frontiers in Psychology, 6 , 943 – 952 . PubMed ID: 26236249 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00943 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00943 Strupeit , S. , Buss , A. , & Wolf-Ostermann , K

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Shamsi S. Monfared, Gershon Tenenbaum, Jonathan R. Folstein and K. Anders Ericsson

between the executed movement’s pattern and the original mental representation, and make concurrent adjustments to actions when possible. In a similar manner, superior performance in self-paced sports involves an early and successful system for monitoring performance, which reduces deviations from

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

greater cognitive processing, as it requires an actor to form and maintain a mental representation of object and action until the gesture is performed. In comparison, actual use places less demand on working memory (e.g., Heath, Westwood, Roy, & Young, 2002 ; Randerath, Li, Goldenberg, & Hermsdörfer

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Shelly Ruart, Olivier Hue and Stephane Sinnapah

completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire–Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997 ). The MIQ-R measures movement imagery ability for basic and daily life movements. The MIQ-R is an 8-item self-reported questionnaire in which participants rate the ease or difficulty of forming a mental representation using