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George W. Lawton, Tsung Min Hung, Pekka Saarela, and Bradley D. Hatfield

High levels of athletic performance are frequently attributed to mental states. Evidence for this attribution comes mainly from phenomenological reports of athletes. However, research with elite performers using electrophysiological measures has tracked changes in nervous system activity in real time during performance, which may further understanding of such states. Specific patterns of psychophysiological activity from the cerebral cortex, in the form of event-related slow potentials (SPs), as well as spectral content measured by electroencephalography (EEG), occur in the few seconds of performance (preshot) preparation. We discuss these data. We suggest that the logical structure of research with athletes differs from other psychophysiological research. We emphasize the theoretical mind-body issues and the logical structure of these investigations to suggest directions for future research.

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Mary Ann Carmack and Rainer Martens

The purpose of the study was to obtain descriptive information from runners concerning various aspects of their running, leading to the development and validation of a scale to measure Commitment to Running (CR) and to examine changes in state of mind during different segments ofa run. The subjects, 250 male and 65 female runners of varying levels of ability and experience, responded to a questionnaire which requested information regarding demographics, attitudes toward running, mental states during a run, and perceived outcomes of running. A 12-item Commitment to Running Scale was included in the questionnaire, and substantial support for its reliability and concurrent validity was provided. Significant differences were found on a number of variables which were expected to predict CR—specifically, length of run, discomfort experienced when a run is missed, and perceived addiction to running. Regression analysis indicated that perceived addiction, state of mind, and length of run are significant predictors of CR. The findings also support many of the popular notions regarding the concept of “positive addiction” to running and changes in mental state which occur during a run.

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Chung-Ju Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu, Ming-Chun Hsueh, Yi-Hsiang Chiu, Mei-Yao Huang, and Chien-Chih Chou

single acute bout of aerobic exercise could positively regulate mental states (e.g., mood, self-control, self-efficacy, and concentration) to energize attention resources to refine cognitive processing ( Basso & Suzuki, 2017 ; Tomporowski, 2003 ). Moreover, current evidence suggests that the brain

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Roy David Samuel, Guy Matzkin, Saar Gal, and Chris Englert

; SDS-17 = Social Desirability Scale-17; JPMR = Jacobson progressive muscular relaxation; MSPE = mindful sport performance enhancement; SSCCS = State Self-Control Capacity Scale; DHS = Daily Hassles Scale; PPMS = preperformance mental states; PPA = postperformance assessment; PE = performance evaluation

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Vikki Krane, Jennifer Waldron, Jennifer Michalenok, and Julie Stiles-Shipley

A feminist cultural studies framework was employed to better understand the relationships among body image, eating, and exercise in female exercisers and athletes. Participants (N=18) engaged in focus group interviews regarding their ideal body image, eating and exercise patterns, and feelings associated with eating and exercising. The athlete interviews also included questions concerning their coach, performance issues, and comfort with their uniforms. Results revealed that most of the women in this study desired an unrealistic ideal body: a toned body with minimal fat. The exercisers emphasized being toned, yet they also avoided too much muscularity. These women constantly were balancing their physical activity and eating: if they exercised, they gave themselves permission to eat and if they ate too much, they punished themselves with exercise. The athletes’ ideal body was dependent upon the social context. Their body satisfaction and concomitant mental states and self-presentation varied depending upon whether the athletes were considering their bodies as athletes or as culturally female.

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Vikki Krane

The purpose of this paper is to lay a conceptual foundation for understanding and studying lesbians in sport. To begin to understand lesbians in sport, it is necessary to critically examine the socialization process. Lesbians are socialized within a homonegative and heterosexist society, where they learn homonegative attitudes. The sport environment is even more hostile toward lesbians, thus escalating the negative impact of homonegativism experienced by lesbians in sport compared to nonsport lesbians. These reactions to homonegativism will be manifested through individuals’ mental states (e.g., low self-esteem, low confidence, low satisfaction, high stress) or behaviors (e.g., poor sport performance, substance abuse). However, through exposure to positive social support and successful role models, a positive lesbian identity will be developed. The goals of this framework are to consolidate previous empirical literature about lesbians and apply it to sport and to encourage further conceptualization about lesbians in sport.

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Jean M. Williams, Laura J. Kenow, Gerald J. Jerome, Tracie Rogers, Tessa A. Sartain, and Greg Darland

Little research exists to identify optimal coaching behaviors and factors that influence the effectiveness of particular behaviors. The present study tested 484 athletes in order to determine sub-scales on the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). The CBQ measures athletes’ perceptions of coaching behaviors and evaluates their effectiveness in helping athletes play better and maintain optimal mental states and focus. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the two-factor model (negative activation, supportiveness/emotional composure) derived from an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Correlational analyses indicated that athletes with higher anxiety and lower self-confidence and compatibility with the coach were more likely to negatively evaluate coaching behaviors. The results support and expand on Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport.

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Diane M. Ste-Marie

the development of execution/game strategies and motor routines) and performance (observing for the development of optimal arousal and mental states) functions of observation. The four articles presented in this special section on the use of observation to enhance motor skill acquisition serve to

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Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand, and Geoff P. Lovell

required for prolonged amounts of time. As such, endurance athletes are faced with high levels of: stress, and physical and mental fatigue ( Moran, 2016 ), and thus, mental states, resilience and self-regulation strategies (e.g., self-talk), play a key role in performance ( McCormick, Meijen, & Marcora

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Akilah R. Carter-Francique, Yeomi Choi, DeAnne Davis Brooks, Katherine M. Jamieson, and Judy Liao

bodies, mental states, spirit senses, and intellectual capacity. It is always hard to do the hard work, and uniquely challenging right now. We all could use a break. We also could use a revolution! We must persevere in our squad care, self-care, and in our actions toward our collective aims to understand