, 2014 ; Pelly et al., 2006 , 2009 ), but involvement by these experts varies considerably depending on the caterer’s emphasis on nutrition within their food program. For this reason, independent experts have been called upon to review the proposed menu prior to these events. Professionals in Nutrition
Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons
Fiona Pelly, Helen O’Connor, Gareth Denyer and Ian Caterson
This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N = 414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games.
Guadalupe Garrido, Anthony L Webster and Manuel Chamorro
The article describes a study that evaluated the adequacy of 2 different menu settings in a group of elite adolescent Spanish soccer players. Five-day food intake was assessed on 2 occasions, while athletes were consuming a flexible “buffet-style” diet (B; n = 33) and a fixed “menu-style” diet (M; n = 29). For all principal meals of the day food weighing was performed, and snacks were recorded by self-report. M provided significantly higher total energy and carbohydrate intakes than B. Breakfast and snacks both provided more energy in M. Calories obtained from fat were excessive in both settings. Calcium and vitamin D were below recommendations in B but not in M. Fiber, magnesium, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E intake fell below recommended values in both settings. M provided significantly greater quantities of magnesium and vitamins D and E. Both feeding options were far from optimal in satisfying current scientifically based recommendations for active adolescents.
Nancy Clark, Cato Coleman, Kerri Figure, Tom Mailhot and John Zeigler
Every 4 years, rowers from around the world compete in a 50- to 60-day transAtlantic rowing challenge. These ultra-distance rowers require a diet that provides adequate calories, protein, vitamins, minerals, and fluids so they can perform well day after day, minimize fatigue, and stay healthy. Yet, the rowers are confronted with menu planning challenges. The food needs to be lightweight, compact, sturdy, non-spoiling in tropical temperatures, calorie dense, easy to prepare, quick to cook, and good tasting. Financial concerns commonly add another menu planning challenge. The purpose of this case study is to summarize the rowers’ food experiences and to provide guidance for sports nutrition professionals who work with ultra-endurance athletes embarking on a physical challenge with similar food requirements. The article provides food and nutrition recommendations as well as practical considerations for ultra-distance athletes. We describe an 8,000 calorie per day menu planning model that uses food exchanges based on familiar, tasty, and reasonably priced supermarket foods that provide the required nutrients and help contain financial costs.
Marcin Straczkiewicz, Jacek Urbanek and Jaroslaw Harezlak
.e., 10 minutes for data up to 1 hour, 1 hour for data between 1 and 6 hours, and 6 hours for data greater than 6 hours) of a loaded signal. The user can then select a subset of the data for further exploration. Selection of such signal portions is done via intuitive sliders and drop-down menus located in
Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke
integrated with expert knowledge of food composition and menu planning to translate nutrient targets or dietary philosophies into food choices and meal patterns. Expertise is then needed to implement theoretical menus in real life. Practical issues include expense; food availability; opportunities and
Fiona Pelly, Nanna L. Meyer, Jeni Pearce, Sarah J. Burkhart and Louise M. Burke
The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of postcompetition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.
Kristine Larson Clark
Athletic departments in colleges and universities are beginning to recognize the role a sports nutrition professional plays in providing both clinical nutrition services to athletes and nutrition education programs to teams, coaches, and trainers. Traditionally, sports nutritionists have been viewed as capable of counseling athletes toward improved nutrition behaviors for improved performance outcomes. More globally, a sports nutritionist at a major university can develop and implement nutrition education programs for athletes that can be implemented in alternative situations to effect the greater student body. Menu changes in dining facilities, expanded dining hours, and campus workshops on eating disorders, weight gain, or weight loss are examples of programs created by a university sports nutritionist.
Steven Craig Conway
This article is a critical qualitative textual analysis of a selection of soccer video games, focusing on the representational and functional aspects of machine actions outside the game (Galloway, 2006) as illustrated by the “Introductory Video” and “Start Menu.” I analyze the figurative and ludic implications of these components comparatively, illustrating their crucial role in configuring audience expectations and pleasures for the game genre as well as for game play. By doing so I hope to illuminate how the socio-ideological values of sport video games (and video games in general) are not only exhibited through the main content of the game but also through something as simple as the start screen. This research concludes by examining what these nongame spaces have to tell us about representations of soccer in new media, and how these mediations affect our understanding of the sport’s culture.
Jeff Newmiller and Maury L. Hull
This article describes a new portable digital data acquisition module, which has been developed for the measurement and temporary storage of signals from mobile biomechanical phenomena in the field. The module’s performance capabilities include 32 available analog input channels, a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter, maximum throughput of 57,040 samples per second, and a temporary storage capacity of up to 253,000 samples. The portable power source is a rechargeable battery pack, and the appropriate sensors and sensor signal conditioning circuits are supplied by the user to meet the particular needs of the phenomena under study. The size of the signal conditioning, battery pack, and data acquisition module is such that it can be carried in a belt pack worn by a subject under study and weighs less than 3 kgf. To facilitate the use of the module, operating software complements the hardware. The software is comprehensive functionally in that routines are provided for acquiring data, for transferring acquired data serially to a general purpose microcomputer for storage on magnetic media, and for monitoring equipment setup. Further, the software is versatile in that the various parameters necessary to customize the operation to a particular application may be readily set. Finally, the menu-driven structure ensures that the software is easy to use.