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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

to convey why and how to achieve the PA level ( Latimer, Brawley, & Bassett, 2010 ). Message framing is one such approach to design effective messages that communicate the reasons to be physically active. Gain-framed messages that describe the benefits of participating in PA are argued to be more

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Kin-Kit Li, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = −4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = −2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

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Erin Berenbaum and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Gain-framed messages are more effective at promoting physical activity than loss-framed messages. However, the mechanism through which this effect occurs is unclear. The current experiment examined the effects of message framing on variables described in the communication behavior change model (McGuire, 1989), as well as the mediating effects of these variables on the message-frame–behavior relationship. Sixty low-to-moderately active women viewed 20 gain- or loss-framed ads and five control ads while their eye movements were recorded via eye tracking. The gain-framed ads attracted greater attention, ps < .05; produced more positive attitudes, p = .06; were better recalled, p < .001; influenced decisions to be active, p = .07; and had an immediate and delayed impact on behavior, ps < .05, compared with the loss-framed messages. Mediation analyses failed to reveal any significant effects. This study demonstrates the effects of framed messages on several outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear.

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Shane N. Sweet, Lawrence R. Brawley, Alexandra Hatchell, Heather L. Gainforth and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Given the positive influence of action planning on physical activity, persuasive messages could be designed to promote action planning. The purpose of this paper was to test action planning messages in two studies. Participants were allocated to one of two message groups, reading either a physical activity only or physical activity plus action planning message (Study 1) and either a gain-framed or loss-framed action planning message (Study 2). The percent of individuals who created an action plan and the quality of the plans were evaluated. In Study 1, individuals in the physical activity plus action planning group created as many action plans as the physical activity only group, but their plans were higher quality. In Study 2, Week 2 differences between the gain- and loss-framed message groups were found for action planning. To our knowledge, these studies were the first to investigate message-induced action planning as a behavior. More research is needed to optimize these messages.

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Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner

increasing physical activity can be adapted in order to effectively reach an older population. Framing of Health Information and Positivity Effect in Old Age Previous research in this field has indicated that message framing, the profit- or loss-oriented phrasing of health information, can result in

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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

–inducing statements believable, participants were asked to rate how believable, informative, and interesting they found the exercise message (1 =  not at all and 5 =  extremely ). These items have been used widely in message framing research ( Latimer, Rench, et al., 2008 ). Additionally, participants rated how

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

review of peer and/or friends’ influence on physical activity among American adolescents . Journal of Adolescence, 35 , 941 – 958 . PubMed doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.01.002 Gallagher , K.M. , & Updegraff , J.A. ( 2012 ). Health message framing effects on attitudes, intentions and behavior

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Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Brennan K. Berg and Rhema D. Fuller

Edwards and Washington’s ( 2015 ) study. Although the former gave insight into how message framing can be viewed as institutional maintenance work, the latter investigated strategies used to maintain relevance. As other organizational scholars have demonstrated researching institutions such as democracy

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Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

; Rubinson, 2010 ). Based on this stream of literature, we argue that the key capability of sponsorship-linked communication is to “frame” the consumer’s decision-making process. In other fields of marketing research, it has been reliably demonstrated that message framing affects the way consumers evaluate

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Mathew Dowling, Becca Leopkey and Lee Smith

impacted on Olympic legacy: A study of unintended consequences and the ‘Sport Makers’ volunteering programme . Managing Sport and Leisure, 21 , 61 – 74 . doi:10.1080/23750472.2016.1181984 10.1080/23750472.2016.1181984 Nite , C. ( 2017 ). Message framing as institutional maintenance: The National