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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

avenue involves the effects of normative messaging. Normative messages can influence PA by capitalizing on descriptive norms (DNs), that is, perceptions of what most other people are doing ( Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990 ). DNs correlate with behavior because people take cues from observing what

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Emily Knox, Stuart Biddle, Dale W. Esliger, Joe Piggin and Lauren Sherar


Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).


A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated.


Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior.


Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

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Nicole J. Chimera, Monica R. Lininger and Meghan Warren

Therefore, simpler methods of reporting injuries in recreational activities may allow a more accurate and precise incidence of injury in these popular endeavors. A newer method for injury reporting is via short message service (SMS) or text messaging; this allows individuals to report injuries, and

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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

Despite the evident benefits, most adults do not reach the recommended physical activity (PA) level ( Haskell et al., 2007 ). It is important for PA promotion that guidelines for PA, which describe how much PA one should do to obtain the benefits, are supplemented with persuasive messages designed

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Shelly Ruart, Olivier Hue and Stephane Sinnapah

; Johnston, Hoffman, & Thornton, 2014 ). The latter in fact led to the concept of mobile health (mHealth; Fiordelli, Diviani, & Schulz, 2013 ; O’Reilly & Spruijt-Metz, 2013 ). Text Messaging as a Way to Increase Physical Activity in Older Adults Although seniors consistently have lower rates of technology

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp and Ben Jackson

upcoming exercise session. Half of our participants were provided with a preexercise session message that made strong claims about several enjoyment-related benefits of the session, whereas the other half received no such “expectancy” message. All participants, however, subsequently completed an exercise

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Ines Pfeffer

Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual’s regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

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Timothy C. Howle, James A. Dimmock, Nikos Ntoumanis, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Cassandra Sparks and Ben Jackson

represents one way in which health professionals can address this task. Consistent with this aim, health and exercise psychologists have sought to develop persuasive messages that are effective in shaping individuals’ thoughts about exercise (e.g., self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes), with the goal of

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Brody J. Ruihley and Robin L. Hardin

Fantasy sport joins competition, sport knowledge, and socialization into one interactive sport activity. This research specifically focuses on the socialization aspects of the activity. This analysis addresses overall satisfaction in fantasy sport, future intentions to return to the activity, and reasons why fantasy sport users (FSUs) do or do not use message boards. Data were collected from 322 FSUs in a questionnaire format using quantitative-scale items and qualitative open-ended questions. The results indicate 62.1% (n = 200) of the sample using message boards in their fantasy sport experience. Reasons for their use were based on the themes of logistical conversation, socializing, surveillance, and advice or opinion. FSUs chose not to use message boards for reasons based on no interest, information, time, and alternative options. Other results indicate that those using message boards have higher overall satisfaction and future use intentions than those not using message boards. This suggests that message boards enhance the fantasy sport experience.

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

with how a team or athlete wants information covered and the way the media reproduce that information. Media framing researchers have shown that the messages presented by the media are influenced by the media’s self-interests and do not always reflect how the organization or athlete presented the