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Andrew M. Edwards and Raewyn E. Walker

The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been the subject of considerable controversy in terms of whether it is beneficial to endurance athletes and because a convincing physiological rationale has not been identified to explain its mechanism of action. Early studies suggested that IMT was an ineffectual intervention for gains in either maximal aerobic power or endurance-specific performance. More rigorous recent research supports the observation that maximal aerobic power is not receptive to IMT; however, closer evaluation of both early and contemporary research indicates that responses to endurance-specific performance tests are sensitive to IMT. As the aim of endurance training is to improve endurance performance rather than maximal aerobic power, it is plausible that IMT may be useful in specific performance-related circumstances. Performance adaptations following IMT appear to be connected with post training reports of attenuated effort sensations, but this common observation has tended to be overlooked by researchers in preference for a reductionist explanation. This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of IMT from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.

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Javier T. Gonzalez, Martin J. Barwood, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas and Glyn Howatson

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISIMatsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p < .05) but to a lesser extent following bout 2 (time x bout interaction, p < .05). Eccentric exercise decreased ISIMatsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p < .05). Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

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Paul D. Loprinzi


High family functioning is associated with reduced depression symptoms, better academic achievement, less disordered eating, and better metabolic control among youth. However, we know very little about the role of family functioning on physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth, which was the purpose of this study.


Data from the 2003 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used. A total of 61,226 parents/guardians from the 2003 cycle and 40,446 parents/guardians from the 2011–2012 cycle (total n = 101,672) across all 50 states and the District of Columbia were examined. Parents answered questions related to family functioning and their child’s (age 6–17 yrs) physical activity and sedentary behavior.


Results were the same across both cycles; after adjustments, youth engaged in less physical activity if the family had worse family functioning (β = −0.06, P < .001). Similarly, youth engaged in more sedentary behavior if the family had worse family functioning (β = 0.05, P < .001).


This research suggests that youth are more active and engage in less sedentary behavior if their family has greater family functioning.

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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

concentration have been negatively correlated with VO 2max per kilogram, whereas no correlation has been observed between platelet concentration and VO 2max per kilogram. 9 NGF and BDNF are interconnected in metabolic control and in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 15 Metabolic dysfunction

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Stefano Palermi, Anna M. Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Nastasia Marino, Francesco Gambardella, Carlo Loiacono and Felice Sirico

adults ( Huang & Liu, 2015 ), suggesting a protective role against falls. Similar positive results of Tai Chi programs have been reported in older patients with diabetes also, not only about the risk of falls ( Xiao & Zhuang, 2015 ), but also about other aspects of the disease, such as metabolic control

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Mike Pryzbek, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane and Ada Tang

:10.1155/2008/109502 10.1155/2008/109502 Moore , S.A. , Hallsworth , K. , Plotz , T. , Ford , G.A. , Rochester , L. , & Trenell , M.I. ( 2013 ). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and metabolic control following stroke: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study . PLoS ONE, 8 ( 1

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Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro

, Beckers F . Heart rate variability in athletes . Sports Med . 2003 ; 33 ( 12 ): 889 – 19 . PubMed ID: 12974657 doi:10.2165/00007256-200333120-00003 12974657 10.2165/00007256-200333120-00003 5. Benbenek-Klupa T , Matejko B , Klupa T . Metabolic control in type 1 diabetes patients practicing

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Andrzej Gawrecki, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Grzegorz Biegański, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Bogda Skowrońska, Anna Adamska, Dariusz Naskręt, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Agnieszka Szypowska, Tomasz Klupa and Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz

carbohydrates consumed by an individual but also on the type, intensity, and duration of physical activity performed, the patient’s metabolic control of diabetes, their residual insulin secretion, their physical fitness, and their own knowledge of diabetes ( 15 ). Assessment of lactate concentration might help

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

Compromised muscle mass, function, and metabolic control are hallmarks of muscular disuse. As little as 5 days of inactivity can significantly compromise muscle health, particularly in middle-aged and older adults ( Covinsky et al., 2003 ; Hirsch, Sommers, Olsen, Mullen, & Winograd, 1990 ; Sager

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

-0779 28530528 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0779 26. Lander PJ , Butterly RJ , Edwards AM . Self-paced exercise is less physically challenging than enforced constant pace exercise of the same intensity: influence of complex central metabolic control . Br J Sports Med . 2009 ; 43 ( 10 ): 789 – 795 . PubMed ID