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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

laboratory has utilized the ratio of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) to predicted RMR based on prediction equations to identify those at risk for being energy deficient ( De Souza et al., 2007a , 2008 ; Scheid et al., 2009 ). Comparisons of measured-to-predicted RMR were initially utilized to

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Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot and David R. Gater Jr.

; Farkas & Gater, 2017 ). Traditionally, TDEE is equal to the sum of the thermic effect of activity (TEA), the thermic effect of food, and the resting metabolic rate (RMR). TEA is the most variable aspect of the TDEE equation and is defined as the energy used above the resting needs for nonessential

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

 hours and to remain normally hydrated prior to body composition and RMR assessment. After DXA scanning, subjects underwent testing for resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry to determine daily resting caloric expenditure. Subjects sat quietly in a reclined position and breathed normally

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Kathryn H. Myburgh, Claire Berman, Illana Novick, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert

We studied 21 ballet dancers aged 19.4 ± 1.4 years, hypothesizing that undernu-trition was a major factor in menstrual irregularity in this population. Menstrual history was determined by questionnaire. Eight dancers had always been regular (R). Thirteen subjects had a history of menstrual irregularity (HI). Of these, 2 were currently regularly menstruating, 3 had short cycles, 6 were oligomenorrheic, and 2 were amenorrheic. Subjects completed a weighed dietary record and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The following physiological parameters were measured: body composition by anthropometry, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by open-circuit indirect calorimetry, and serum thyroid hormone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. R subjects had significantly higher RMR than HI subjects. Also, HI subjects had lower RMR than predicted by fat-free mass, compared to the R subjects. Neitherreported energy intake nor serum thyroid hormone concentrations were different between R and HI subjects. EAT scores varied and were not different between groups. We concluded that in ballet dancers, low RMR is more strongly associated with menstrual irregularity than is currentreported energy intake or serum thyroid hormone concentrations.

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

-documented reports of low BMD, it remains questionable if jockeys are athletes who truly exhibit symptoms of RED-S. Indeed, measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) does not differ from predicted RMR ( Cunningham & Johns, 1980 ), either before ( Wilson et al., 2015a , 2015b ) or after dietary interventions ( Wilson et

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Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore

The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between exercise training and resting metabolic rate (RMR). The focus of this investigation was to compare RMR in aerobically trained (AT), resistance trained (RT), and untrained (UNT) women. Subjects were also classified as highly trained (HT), moderately trained (MT), or untrained (UNT) in order to examine the relationship between RMR and level of training. Sixty-one women between the ages of 18 and 46 years volunteered to serve as subjects in this study. Each subject completed measurements of body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and two consecutive measurements of RMR. The data presented show that there was no significant difference in resting metabolic rate between resistance-trained, aerobically trained, and control subjects. However, when grouped by intensity of training, there was a trend for an increased resting metabolic rate (kcal/day) in the highly trained subjects, regardless of mode of training.

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Kristin L. Osterberg and Christopher L. Melby

This study determined the effect of an intense bout of resistive exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption, resting metabolic rate, and resting fat oxidation in young women (N = 7, ages 22-35). On the morning of Day 1, resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry. At 13:00 hr, preexercise resting oxygen consumption was measured followed by 100 min of resistive exercise. Postexercise oxygen consumption was then measured for a 3-hr recovery period. On the following morning (Day 2), RMR was once again measured in a fasted state at 07:00. Postexercise oxygen consumption remained elevated during the entire 3-hr postexercise recovery period compared to the pre-exercise baseline. Resting metabolic rate was increased by 4.2% (p < .05) from Day 1 (morning prior to exercise: 1,419 ± 58 kcal/24 hr) compared to Day 2 (16 hr following exercise: 1,479 ± 65 kcal/24 hr). Resting fat oxidation as determined by the respiratory exchange ratio was also significantly elevated on Day 2 compared to Day 1. These results indicate that among young women, acute strenuous resistance exercise of the nature used in this study is capable of producing modest but prolonged elevations of postexercise metabolic rate and possibly fat oxidation.

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Craig A. Horswill

Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects on anaerobic performance are equivocal Anaerobic performance—strength and power—may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation.

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Janice L. Thompson, Melinda M. Manore and Jerry R. Thomas

Studies examining the effects of diet (D) and diet-plus-exercise (DE) programs on resting metabolic rate (RMR) report equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to determine if exercise prevents the decrease in RMR observed with dieting. Results from the 22 studies included in this analysis revealed that the majority of studies used female subjects ages 31-45 years, who were fed a relatively low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet of less than 5,023 kJ · day1. The predominant prescribed exercise was aerobic in nature, 31-60 min in duration, performed 4-5 days per week, and of moderate intensity (51-70% of VO2max). Contrary to what is reported in narrative reviews, RMR decreased significantly with both D and DE programs, and the drop with D was significantly greater than that with DE. In conclusion, the addition of exercise to dietary restriction appears to prevent some of the decrease in RMR observed in premenopausal women.

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Robert Norman, Sylvia Ounpuu, Margo Fraser and Ronald Mitchell

This paper explores whether there may be useful information in estimates of metabolic rates obtained from biomechanical calculations of mechanical power output. Thirteen men were analyzed as they passed a camera on each of three laps on an 11.8° uphill in the 30-km classical technique Olympic Nordic ski event. A 15-segment model was constructed; velocity, stride length, stride rate, mechanical power output, and from this latter measure an estimate of oxygen consumption, were obtained. The average lap velocity was 5.65 m•s−1 (20 km•hr−1), the film site velocity was 2.58 m•s−1, and the correlation between them was 0.75. There were no significant differences from lap to lap in any variable, nor were there dramatic differences between the skiers in the top 14 compared with those finishing in 35th place or slower in stride length or stride rate. However, the faster skiers had estimated VO2 from 80 to 112 ml•kg−1 • min−1 on most laps while the slower skiers had values from 53 to 77. If a VO2 estimated from biomechanical data can ultimately be shown to be accurate, a rather useful tool may have been identified for coaches, athletes, and sport scientists that can be used during competition in endurance events.