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Katrina D. DuBose and Andrew J. McKune

The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

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Yoonsuk Jekal, YoonMyung Kim, Ji Eun Yun, Eun Sung Kim, Masayo Naruse, Ji Hye Park, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung-youn Hong, Sun Ha Jee and Justin Y. Jeon

Background:

Few studies have been conducted to explore the associations of fatness and fitness during adolescence with risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during adulthood, particularly in Asians.

Methods:

Adolescent anthropometric and fitness data were collected during the participants’ high school years (N = 15,896) and their corresponding health examination data from adulthood were taken from the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) in Korea. A total of 1,006 participants (6.3%) were analyzed in the study.

Results:

The odds ratios (ORs) for being overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) during adulthood was 11.87 (95% CI: 4.19–33.59) in men and 8.44 (95% CI: 1.78–40.02) in women, respectively, in the fattest group vs. the leanest group during adolescence. Participants with low fitness levels during adolescence were more likely to be overweight and have abnormal MetS risk factors in adulthood vs. those with high fitness levels. Joint exposure analyses of fatness and fitness showed that male participants who were more fat and unfit during adolescence had 4.11 (95% CI: 1.19–14.14) and 3.04 (95% CI: 1.17–11.12) times higher risk of having abnormal glucose and MetS risks during adulthood, respectively.

Conclusions:

Fatness and fitness levels during adolescence appear to be significantly associated with the MetS risk factors and prevalence in adulthood in Koreans.

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Jie Liang, Shuang-Shuang Tian, Nan Qiao, Cong Wang, Jian-Jun Huang, Chen-Ming Sun, Hai-Xia Zhang, Yan Cui, Hui Wang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Shu-Hong Xu, Hongwei Guan and Tong Wang

Objective:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China.

Method:

The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results:

A total of 3076 males aged 18–65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633–0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516–0.762).

Conclusions:

Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.

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Sofia W. Manta, Paula F. Sandreschi, Thiago S. Matias, Camila Tomicki and Tânia R.B. Benedetti

 al., 2016 ). In older adults, the lack of PA and sedentary behavior are associated with all-cause mortality, and even low levels of PA have been found beneficial ( Brown et al., 2012 ). In addition, these behaviors are associated with both all-cause mortality and the presence of metabolic syndrome ( Chau et

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus). MetS is a predictor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1

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Scott Strath, Ann Swartz, Sarah Parker, Nora Miller and Linda Cieslik

Background:

Little data exists describing the impact that walking has on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a multicultural sample of older adults.

Methods:

Walking was measured via pedometer in 150 older adults from four different ethnic categories. Steps per day were classified as low (<3,100 steps/d) or high (≥3,100 steps/d) for statistical analyses.

Results:

Occurrence of MetS was lower in the white (33%) versus non-white population (50%). Low steps/d were related to an increase in MetS for both white (OR = 96.8, 95% CI 12.3-764.6) and non-white individuals (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.8-11.3). Low steps/d also increased the odds for selected components of MetS in both the white and non-white groups.

Conclusion:

Low levels of walking increase the likelihood of having MetS in both white and non-white older adults. Efforts to increase walking in older adults may decrease the likelihood of developing this clustering of disease risk factors.

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David A. White, Youngha Oh and Erik A. Willis

Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome risk factors (METsRF) has become a serious public health concern for children and adolescents over the past 30 years. The most recent estimates show 17% of children and adolescents aged 2–17 years old are obese 1 and 26.4% to 45.6% of

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Sara López-Martínez, Mairena Sánchez-López, Montserrat Solera-Martinez, Natalia Arias-Palencia, Rosa M. Fuentes-Chacón and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

Purpose:

Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18–30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR.

Results:

The mean scores of MS index and HOMAIR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index.

Conclusions:

VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk.

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

, inflammation, and a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, known as the metabolic syndrome (MetS; Chung, Kang, Lee, Lee, & Lee, 2013 ; Kalinkovich & Livshits, 2017 ; Tian & Xu, 2016 ). Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle mass ( Ribeiro et al., 2015 ; Tomeleri et al., 2016

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Anna E. Greer, Xuemei Sui, Andréa L. Maslow, Beau Kjerulf Greer and Steven N. Blair

Background:

To date, no longitudinal studies have examined the influence of sedentary behavior on metabolic syndrome development while accounting for cardiorespiratory fitness.

Purpose and Methods:

This prospective study examined the relationship between sedentary behavior and incident metabolic syndrome while considering the effects of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on the association among 930 men enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.

Results:

A total of 124 men developed metabolic syndrome during 8974 person-years of exposure. After adjusting for covariates, men with middle and high sedentary behavior had 65% and 76% higher risks of developing metabolic syndrome, respectively, than men with low sedentary behavior (linear trend P = .011). This association remained significant after additional adjustment for activity status and cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity were also inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, even after adjustment for sedentary behavior.

Conclusions:

The findings highlight the importance of reducing sedentary behavior, increasing physical activity, and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for preventing metabolic syndrome.