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Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand, and Geoff P. Lovell

. Recent research has investigated how the components of metacognition may associate with mindfulness skills. Metacognitions can exist as either metacognitive knowledge (knowledge and beliefs about internal events) or regulation (monitoring, evaluating and storing information about cognitive strategies

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, and Yu-Kai Chang

achievement in school settings ( Howie & Pate, 2012 ). Recently, adjustments to the exercise-academic achievement model proposed by Howie and Pate ( 2012 ) were suggested. Specifically, Tomporowski et al. ( 2015 ) postulated that metacognition, as a potential mediator, should be placed between executive

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Loel Collins, Howie J. Carson, and Dave Collins

Previous research has emphasised the dynamic nature of coaching practice and the need to consider both individual performer needs and necessary contextual trade-offs in providing optimum solutions. In this regard, a Professional Judgment and Decision Making framework has been suggested to facilitate an optimum blend of actions against these complex and dynamic demands. Accordingly, we extend this work and address recent calls for greater focus on expertise-oriented assessments, by postulating on the aspirant/developing coach’s capacity for and development of metacognition (i.e., active control over cognitive processes) as a ‘tool’ within the reflective process. Specifically, we propose that metacognition enables essential active cognitive processing for deep learning and impactful application, together with construction and refinement of useable knowledge to inform coaching decisions. Metacognition, therefore, helps to contextualise knowledge provided in training, further optimising the experience, particularly before certification. Finally, we exemplify how metacognition can be developed in coaches through the use of cognitive apprenticeships and decision training tools; and evaluated via a series of observed coaching episodes, with reasoning articulated through pre and postsession interview. Despite challenging traditional competency-based approaches to coach education, we believe that a considered mixed approach represents a vital next step in further professionalising sports coaching.

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Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy, and Lindsey Burns

Meta-attention is a form of metacognition that relates to one’s knowledge and awareness of the operation and controllability of one’s attentional system ( Miller & Bigi, 1979 ). The study of meta-attention in sport performers enables researchers to understand how athletes focus and refocus their

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Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski, and Shane Pill

’s feedback and direction. Metacognitive Game Skills Reflecting the complexity of the processes described earlier, both metacognition and cognition are essential parts of player understanding. According to Flavell’s ( 1979 ) original explanation of metacognition, thinking about how to solve a problem is used

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Thomas B. Franek and Malissa Martin

Edited by Gary B. Wilkerson

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Athanasia Chatzipanteli, Nikolaos Digelidis, and Athanasios G. Papaioannou

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students’ self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group. The teachers who taught the students assigned to the experimental group used student-activated teaching styles, and specifically the reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, convergent discovery, and divergent discovery styles. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the experimental group, compared with the comparison group, had higher scores in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and metacognitive activities, and lower scores in external motivation, and amotivation. The study revealed that going beyond the command and/or the practice style of teaching, PE teachers can enhance students’ metacognitive skills, lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.

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Gilles Kermarrec, John R. Todorovich, and David S. Fleming

Research in educational psychology and sport psychology indicates that school achievement depends on students’ capacity to self-regulate their own learning processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-regulation components employed by students in a natural physical education setting. Twenty-three French students, 14 and 15 years old, were videotaped during their regular physical education class as their teachers taught them a new skill. The students then watched a recording of their performance and provided the researcher with a verbal description of their cognitive activity during the lesson. Verbal data were then analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data revealed that the students employed a 17-component self-regulation model while learning a new skill in the natural physical education context. Three teaching models that emerged for eliciting the identified self-regulation components among students are also discussed.

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Katie Dray and Kristy Howells

account the above context, the use of e-portfolios was seen as useful for three key reasons: a) as an accessible learning space; b) as a tool that would stimulate reflection and meta-cognition; and c) as a tool to provide links to the student coaches’ learning communities. An Accessible Learning Space The

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Rose Martini, A.E. Ted Wall, and Bruce M. Shore

The use of metacognition differs with different levels of cognitive ability, but it is not known whether children of different psychomotor abilities use metacognition differently. This study used a think-aloud protocol to compare the active use of metacognition in children with different psychomotor abilities—high skill, average, developmental coordination disorder (DCD)—during a ball-throwing task. Children with DCD did not verbalize fewer or different metacognitive concepts than either the average or high skill children; however, relative to their counterparts, a significant median proportion of the concepts verbalized by children with DCD were found to be inappropriate or inaccurate. These findings reflect ineffective metacognitive processing by children with DCD during a psychomotor task.