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Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

This paper presents a brief overview of some of the major issues associated with research design in experimental gerontology. The intention is not to provide a comprehensive and detailed guide to experimental design and research methods. Rather, the paper focuses on a more general discussion of several issues associated with the design, implementation, and interpretation of research in an attempt to illustrate why a rudimentary knowledge of these topics is essential for all researchers and practitioners involved in the study of the aging process. Wherever possible, specific examples from the exercise science and applied health literature are selected in order to illustrate the significance of these factors for our field of expertise.

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Andrea Torres, Bethany Tennant, Isabela Ribeiro-Lucas, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Katrina Piercy and Bonny Bloodgood

training and quality control (QC) staff, librarians, abstractors, triage staff, and systematic review liaisons, who were responsible for working with the committee. The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic methodology used by the committee to develop the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

visualization, which we call the exploratory qualitative-temporal visual analysis and narrative (EQTVAN) methodology. Following the advice of Tinati et al. ( 2014 , p. 6), our research focuses on the integration of “technical capabilities with in-depth qualitative research methods” with the goals of enhancing

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Gregory Knell, Deborah Salvo, Kerem Shuval, Casey Durand, Harold W. Kohl III and Kelley P. Gabriel

illustrate this approach and to demonstrate its utility, we used data from an ongoing community-based study to identify participant profiles with varying protocol compliance and thresholds for outstanding accelerometer pursuit. Methodology For the purposes of this study, an outstanding accelerometer is

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Jakob Tarp, Lars B. Andersen and Lars Østergaard


Cycling to and from school is an important source of physical activity (PA) in youth but it is not captured by the dominant objective method to quantify PA. The aim of this study was to quantify the underestimation of objectively assessed PA caused by cycling when using accelerometry.


Participants were 20 children aged 11 to 14 years from a randomized controlled trial performed in 2011. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry with the addition of heart rate monitoring during cycling to school. Global positioning system (GPS) was used to identify periods of cycling to school.


Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during round-trip commutes was 10.8 (95% CI: 7.1−16.6). Each kilometer of cycling meant an underestimation of 9314 (95% CI: 7719−11238) counts and 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1−3.5) minutes of MVPA. Adjusting for cycling to school increased estimates of MVPA/day by 6.0 (95% CI: 3.8−9.6) minutes.


Cycling to and from school contribute substantially to levels of MVPA and to mean counts/min in children. This was not collected by accelerometers. Using distance to school in conjunction with self-reported cycling to school may be a simple tool to improve the methodology.

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Robin S. Vealey

In a previous review of the literature between 1950 and 1973, sport personology—the study of personality theory and research in sport—was examined with regard to paradigmatic and methodological issues (Martens, 1975). This study follows up and extends that article by examining trends and issues that have developed in sport personology since that time. A content analysis of the sport personality research published in selected journals and proceedings between 1974 and 1987 was made with regard to paradigm, methodological considerations, and objectives. The results indicated that sport personology has shifted paradigmatically from the trait paradigm to interactionism, but the cognitive interactional approach has overshadowed the trait-state interactional approach. Methodological trends included an emphasis on correlational methods and field research. With regard to research objectives, most studies focused on description and prediction with only a few studies focused on intervention.

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Israel Halperin, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Carl Foster and David B. Pyne

constant growth of exercise and sport sciences, there are a number of methodological problems concerning common research designs and practices that hinder the impact of research. These problems include but are not limited to inadequate validation of surrogate outcomes, too few longitudinal and replication

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Marcus J. Brown, Laura A. Hutchinson, Michael J. Rainbow, Kevin J. Deluzio and Alan R. De Asha

affect outcome measures related to walking speed variability. This finding contradicts that of Paterson et al, 5 who reported increased variability for young and older adult females during discrete trials compared to continuous walking. Other than the different experimental methodologies in the

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Sue Inglis

This review paper presents recent critiques regarding research in sport management and suggests that focus groups are a qualitative methodology particularly suited to research and practice in sport management. Features of qualitative methodology and merits of focus groups are presented. The challenge to scholars working in sport management is (a) to consider using focus-group methodology in situations where such usage will advance the understanding of and response to research questions, and (b) to consider using focus groups as a self-contained methodology or in triangulation with other methodologies.

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Keith R. Lohse

, 2015 ; Wasserstein & Lazar, 2016 ). These debates can feel tumultuous and have led many researchers to reflect (and perhaps despair) on their methodological practices. There is a lot of debate about how to solve these problems—and that debate only occurs when researchers can even agree on what the