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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

The human body contains a vast number of bacteria cells ( Sender et al., 2016 ), and the composition of bacteria in the gut (i.e., gut microbiota) is linked to a variety of physiological functions ( Sommer et al., 2013 ) and diseases, such as obesity ( Ley et al., 2006 ). Firmicutes and

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Gabriella Berwig Möller, Maria Júlia Vieira da Cunha Goulart, Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Fernanda Donner Alves and Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

the production of short chain fatty acids, synthesis of neuroactive compounds and immunomodulators, such as interleukin-10, interleukin-12, and interferon-γ ( Kerry et al., 2018 ). Moreover, probiotics have been proposed to modulate gut microbiota composition by increasing favorable bacteria

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Microbiota Bacterial Abundance and Composition Influence the Magnitude of Intestinal Integrity Perturbations, Systemic Cytokinaemia, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Response to Exertional-Heat Stress? Christie Bennett, BNutr Hon 1 ; Rebekah Henry, PhD 2 ; Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, PhD 3 ; Ricardo J.S. Costa, PhD

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Takeshi Kokubo, Yuta Komano, Ryohei Tsuji, Daisuke Fujiwara, Toshio Fujii and Osamu Kanauchi

.1117359109 Clark , A. , & Mach , N. ( 2016 ). Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: A systematic review for athletes . Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13 , 43 . PubMed ID: 27924137 doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0155-6 10.1186/s12970

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

. Consequently, the energy content resulted in the following values: E (31 kcal·kg −1  BM·day −1 ), M (44 kcal·kg −1  BM·day −1 ), and H (56 kcal·kg −1  BM·day −1 ). Fiber There are no general recommendations for fiber in athletes. However, dietary fiber is critical to mantain a healthy gut and microbiota

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

complex causes of obesity, including the many biological drivers, genetics, epigenetics, psychosocial factors, comorbidities, medications, infectious agents, gut microbiota, and even some environmental toxins. Thus, the rather simplistic notion that obesity is simply about people eating too much and not

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Mindy Patterson, Wanyi Wang and Alexis Ortiz

intake method was utilized. Dietary fiber can impact EE by increasing REE through several mechanisms depending on the physiochemical properties (e.g., fermentability, viscosity, solubility) of the fiber ( Wanders et al., 2011 ). Fermentable fibers are metabolized by microbiota in the distal intestine to

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros and Stephen J. Bailey

foodstuffs rich in caffeine to avoid. Finally, subjects were instructed to avoid brushing their teeth on the morning of testing and the use of antibacterial mouthwash, which would alter the oral microbiota and interfere with NO 3 − reduction, from 1 week prior to the first laboratory visit and for the

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

individual’s habitual diet can affect gene expression and their microbiota, and these, in turn, can affect response to supplementation. While the variation in the genome between individuals is less than 0.01%, the variation in microbiota is significant (80–90%), and emerging data suggests that both these

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

-P19 10.1186/1550-2783-9-S1-P19 Marchesi , J.R. , Adams , D.H. , Fava , F. , Hermes , G.D.A. , Hirschfield , G.M. , Hold , G. , … Hart , A. ( 2016 ). The gut microbiota and host health: A new clinical frontier . Gut , 65 ( 2 ), 330 – 339 . PubMed doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309990 10